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Table 3 Perceived levels of knowledge and skills

From: Medical residents’ perceptions of their competencies and training needs in health care management: an international comparison

  Mean (standard deviation)
Denmark Canada Australia Netherlands
Mean 3.54 (0.40) 3.35 (0.51) 3.45 (0.42) 3.39 (0.37)
Mean scale 1 3.76 (0.48) 3.74 (0.58) 3.88 (0.45) 3.65 (0.47)
Time management 3.43 (1.00) 3.51 (1.00) 3.67 (0.87) 3.59 (0.89)
Patient care vs. Practice requirements 3.49 (0.84) 3.50 (0.88) 3.90 (0.67) 3.40 (0.90)
Patient care vs. Personal life 3.79 (0.87) 3.64 (0.84) 3.80 (0.78) 3.40 (0.89)
Leadership skills 3.79 (0.76) 3.83 (0.84) 3.67 (0.74) 3.54 (0.70)
Handling received feedback 3.88 (0.65)† 3.84 (0.79) 3.98 (0.61)† 3.92 (0.55)†
Managing a ward 3.88 (0.64)† 3.93 (0.72)† 3.92 (0.55)† 3.78 (0.70)
Using information technology 4.11 (0.69)† 4.01 (0.83)† 4.23 (0.64)† 3.94 (0.87)†
Mean scale 2 3.46 (0.71) 2.93 (0.77) 2.78 (0.78) 2.40 (0.65)
Organisation & finance healthcare system 3.55 (0.84) 3.23 (0.98) 2.86 (0.97)* 2.55 (0.84)
Organisation & finance specialist dep. 3.42 (0.89) 2.66 (0.97)* 2.59 (0.92)* 2.11 (0.77)*
Requirements as specialist 3.39 (0.93) 2.92 (0.96) 2.88 (0.98) 2.53 (0.81)*
Mean scale 3 3.55 (0.51) 3.74 (0.64) 3.40 (0.62) 3.75 (0.49)
Allocating resources based on costs 3.28 (0.86) 3.47 (0.88) 3.16 (0.86) 3.42 (0.86)
Allocating resources based on finiteness 3.39 (0.71) 3.71 (0.82) 3.46 (0.86) 3.65 (0.70)
Allocating resources based on EBM 3.76 (0.76) 3.81 (0.68) 3.44 (0.82) 3.90 (0.58)
Advocating for patients 3.76 (0.76) 3.95 (0.81)† 3.54 (0.80) 4.03 (0.60)†
Mean scale 4 3.55 (0.53) 3.28 (0.66) 3.52 (0.58) 3.51 (0.48)
Responding to mistakes made by others 3.38 (0.83) 3.07 (0.90) 3.29 (0.89) 3.33 (0.80)
Responding to mistakes made by myself 3.69 (0.77) 3.38 (0.83) 3.59 (0.83) 3.53 (0.75)
Legal rights and duties 3.80 (0.73) 3.29 (0.96) 3.66 (0.69) 3.49 (0.75)
Proper use of medical records 3.82 (0.76) 3.43 (0.91) 3.76 (0.81) 3.62 (0.74)
Dealing with conflicts 3.33 (0.85) 3.56 (0.88) 3.54 (0.73) 3.72 (0.64)
Improving quality processes 3.25 (0.94)* 2.94 (0.97) 3.29 (0.96) 3.38 (0.87)
Mean scale 5 3.27 (0.67) 2.74 (0.79) 3.18 (0.65) 3.16 (0.63)
Negotiating personal ambitions 3.10 (0.98)* 2.58 (1.00)* 3.11 (0.93) 3.38 (0.86)
Create career opportunities 3.71 (0.82) 2.89 (1.02) 3.30 (0.82) 3.42 (0.85)
Negotiate working conditions 2.51 (0.97)* 2.23 (0.91)* 2.75 (0.93)* 2.45 (0.87)*
Personal financial management 3.75 (0.92) 3.26 (1.09) 3.54 (0.89) 3.36 (0.94)
  1. *Three lowest scores per country, † Three highest scores per country.