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Table 1 Checklist for Procedures of Thoracentesis

From: Learning curves and long-term outcome of simulation-based thoracentesis training for medical students

1. Explain procedure to the patient, obtain a written informed consent;
2. Measure blood pressure;
3. Positioning the patient;
4. Recognizing the anatomic landmarks;
5. Percussion combine with CRX to determine the puncture site;
6. Wear hat, mask and gloves;
7. Checking equipment components;
8. Applying sterile technique;
9. Anesthetize the skin first;
10. Anesthetize deeper to pleura (just over the upper border of the rib);
11. Aspirate while advancing, and watch for color change;
12. Notice the depth of the needle advanced;
13. Change to the pleural puncture needle, advance carefully;
14. Aspirate while advancing until the color is the same as before;
15. Flexible the needle with nipper, connect the needle with drainage bag;
16. Aspirate the fluid slowly;
17. Let patient hold breath when withdrawing the needle;
18. Cover the puncture site with sterilized materials;
19. Send pleura fluid to lab for different examination;
20. Measure blood pressure again and have a auscultation;
21. Talk with patient to find any possible complications