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Table 4 Sensitivity and Specificity of Each Medical Student Well-Being Index Item for Detecting Distress within the Intended Domain

From: Development and preliminary psychometric properties of a well-being index for medical students

Item Domain Sensitivity Specificity
1: Feel burned out* Emotional exhaustion 84% 72%
2: Hardened emotionally† Depersonalization 74% 78%
3: Down, depressed, hopeless‡ Depression 86% 100%
4: Fallen asleep while driving§ Fatigue 11% 99%
5: Things piling up so high¶ Stress 58% 90%
6: Bothered by emotional problems|| Mental quality of life 90% 63%
7: Physical Health** Physical quality of life 51% 91%
  1. * Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 1 for high emotional exhaustion (score of ≥27 on the emotional exhaustion subscale score of the Maslach Burnout Inventory). † Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 2 for high depersonalization (score of ≥10 on the depersonalization subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory). ‡ Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 3 for depressive symptoms (as PRIME MD). §Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 4 for excessive fatigue (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score ≥11, a level corresponding to mean scores for patients in need of medical intervention for sleep disorder [31]). ¶Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 5 for high stress (10-item Perceived Stress Scale [33] score of half a standard deviation higher than the norm for age-matched U.S. general population). || Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 6 (mental quality of life scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form score of ≥1/2 standard deviation below the gender and age-matched norm, a difference considered clinically significant [38]). **Sensitivity and specificity of endorsing item no. 7 (physical quality of life scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form score of ≥1/2 standard deviation below the gender and age-matched norm, a difference considered clinically significant [38]).