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Table 2 Explicit and implicit anti-Indigenous measures of medical school applicant respondents, stratified by demographic data

From: Anti-Indigenous bias of medical school applicants: a cross-sectional study

  How do you feel about Indigenous people?a (median, IQR) Do you prefer white people or Indigenous people?b (median, IQR) IAT (median, IQR)
Gender
 Cisgender women 100 (83–100) 50 (39–55) − 0.19 (− 0.47, 0.15)
 Cisgender men 90 (75–100) 50 (46.5–58) − 0.31 (− 0.62, 0.00)
 A non-binary genderc 100 (73–100) 31 (25–42) 0.10 (− 0.18, 1.00)
 Wilcoxon rank-sum testd p = 0.001 p = 0.44 p = 0.0005
Age
 < 20 years 97.5 (80–100) 47 (37–54) − 0.20 (− 0.31, 0.13)
 21–25 years 96 (79–100) 50 (45.5–55) − 0.24 (− 0.57, 0.06)
 26–30 years 87 (79–100) 50 (32–55) − 0.20 (− 0.52, 0.15)
 31–35 years 100 (90–100) 50 (36–55) − 0.17 (− 0.59, 0.21)
 36–40 years 100 (100–100) 27 (0–47) 0.01 (− 0.50, 0.30)
 41–45 years 100 (88–100) 58 (58–58) 0.41 (− 0.76, 0.29)
 46–50 years 93 (85.5–100) − 0.63 (− 0.63, − 0.63)
 > 55 years 88 (88–88) − 0.19 (− 0.19, − 0.19)
 Kruskal-Wallis test p = 0.01 p = 0.33 p = 0.69
Race
 Black 100 (83–100) 47 (33–50) − 0.29 (− 0.50, 0.25)
 White 98 (82–100) 50 (49–56.5) − 0.31 (− 0.61, 0.01)
 Indigenous
 Middle Eastern 100 (95.5–100) 38 (0–47) − 0.28 (− 0.43, 0.13)
 Asian 93.5 (77.5–100) 50 (37–61) − 0.18 (− 0.34, 0.10)
 Hispanic/Latinx 93.5 (87–100) 51.5 (51–52) 0.04 (− 0.42, 0.36)
 Wilcoxon rank-sum teste p = 0.42 p = 0.02 p = 0.0004
LGBTQ2S+ Community
 Yes 100 (82–100) 48 (33–56) −0.26 (− 0.60, 0.11)
 Unsure 98 (85–100) 47 (44–54) − 0.07 (− 0.30, 0.21)
 No 96 (80–100) 50 (41–55) − 0.22 (− 0.54, 0.10)
 Wilcoxon rank-sum testf p = 0.29 p = 0.17 p = 0.11
Minority
 Visible Minority 98 (80–100) 48 (33–56) −0.26 (− 0.60, 0.11)
 Non-visible Minority 100 (84–100) 43 (28–52) −0.23 (− 0.54, 0.08)
  1. Statistical comparison was only performed when groups had more than 15 respondents
  2. IAT implicit association test, LGBTQ+ Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and other sexual orientation community members
  3. Other ability = any sensory, learning, mobility, chronic illness, mental health, temporary illness, or other impairment
  4. a Responses used a sliding thermometer from 0 to 100, where 100 is labelled “Warm/Favourable” and 0 is labelled “Cold/Unfavourable” and 50 indicates neutral
  5. b Responses used a sliding thermometer from 0 to 100, where 100 is labelled “white people”, 0 is labelled “Indigenous people” and 50 is labelled “no preference”
  6. c Two Spirit, gender diverse, non-binary, transgender, and people whose gender was not listed were combined into the group “non-binary gender” to prevent identifiability due to smaller numbers across individual groups
  7. d Comparison between cisgender women and cisgender men
  8. e Comparison between white and Black, Indigenous and People of Colour participants
  9. f Comparison between “Yes and Unsure” members of the LGTBQ+ community to “No” respondents