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Table 4 Examples of ethical concerns discussed

From: The outcomes of a mobile just-in-time-learning intervention for teaching bioethics in Pakistan

Ethical concern Example
Conflict of interest Should consultants charge medical students, trainees, nurses or fellow consultants for clinic visits or procedures?
Confidentiality Is it ethical to disclose patient information to someone in the hospital who is not a member of the healthcare team?
Consent taking Is it sufficient to inform a patient about the physical examination by a resident/student or do we also need to give them the option to refuse by phrasing it as a question?
Resource allocation Provincial government develops a plan without the involvement of the health teams at the district level
Harassment Junior doctors being bullied by consultants, name calling in front of the patients
Do no harm An attending physician suggesting surgery when it is not necessary
Policies not being followed Psychiatry patients not allowed to change their doctor or take LAMA (leave against medical advice) despite the hospital’s policy on patient’s rights and responsibilities
Professionalism Poor role modelling – attending physicians wear gowns, scrubs, shoe covers, etc. in and out of the OR, but students and trainees are questioned about the same