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Table 3 Analysis of learners’ pre-intervention and post-intervention attitude

From: The outcomes of a mobile just-in-time-learning intervention for teaching bioethics in Pakistan

Items   Pre-intervention Post-intervention
N Mean SD Mean SD
Mobile learning through apps on smart devices is beneficial in medical education 29 3.59 0.568 3.52 0.509
Mobile learning tools provide me with rich resources for learning 29 3.55 0.506 3.34 0.614
Learning through smart devices is easy to monitor 29 3.45 0.632 3.52 0.574
Use of smart devices is relevant for my study program 29 3.45 0.632 3.52 0.574
Smart devices provide efficiency in learning 29 3.48 0.634 3.28 0.591
Mobile learning should be supplementary to traditional learning 29 3.48 0.509 3.28 0.797
Mobile learning needs well prepared learning materials 29 3.38 0.561 3.34 0.67
Smart devices can create a personally meaningful learning experience for me 29 3.38 0.561 3.45 0.572
Mobile learning can minimize the cost of learning for me 29 3.55 0.506 3.28 0.702
The use of mobile learning requires non-lecture-based teaching strategies 29 3.28 0.649 2.97 0.778
I would feel comfortable taking mobile learning courses 29 3.38 0.622 3.24 0.739
Using smart devices for learning will save my time 29 3.45 0.632 3.21 0.559
Mobile learning would be better than classroom-based learning 29 2.62 0.82 2.76 0.988
Mobile learning would enable me to interact with my professors more easily than in traditional learning 29 3 0.655 2.59 0.867
I learn better through mobile learning strategies than through lectures 29 2.83 0.759 2.79 0.774
Mobile learning enables me to understand the subject more than the traditional style of learning 29 3.03 0.731 2.76 0.786
I would like to have teaching–learning using smart devices 29 3.38 0.561 3 0.756
Faculty would need sufficient training to teach through smart devices 29 3.55 0.572 3.41 0.733
Students need sufficient changes in their learning styles for mobile learning 29 3.38 0.561 3.17 0.805
Overall scores   3.32 0.42 3.17 0.44