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Table 4 Cohort study appraisal

From: Exploring culinary medicine as a promising method of nutritional education in medical school: a scoping review

Criterion Monlezun et al., 2015 Jaroudi et al., 2018 Monlezun et al., 2018 Lawrence et al., 2019 Hauser et al., 2019 Patnaik et al., 2020 Razavi et al., 2020  
Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Yes Yes a Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  
Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way? Yes Can't Tell b Yes Can't Tell a Can't Tell a Can't Tell b Can't Tell b  
Worth Continuing? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  
Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell b Can't Tell b  
Was the outcome accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell a Can't Tell b Can't Tell c  
Have the authors identified all important confounding factors? Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell a Yes Yes  
Have they taken account of the confounding factors in the design and/or analysis? Yes Can't Tell d Yes Can't Tell c/e Can't Tell a Yes Yes  
Was the follow up of subjects complete enough? Yes No Can't Tell a No Can't Tell a Can't Tell f Can't Tell f  
Was the follow up of subjects long enough? Yes Can't Tell a Can't Tell a Can't Tell a Yes Can't Tell f Can't Tell f  
Do you believe the results? Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell g/h Yes Yes  
Can the results be applied to the local population? Yes No h/g Yes No h/g Can't Tell g/h Yes Yes  
Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  
Uncertainty Score 0 7 2 7 7 5 5  
Criterion Magallanes et al., 2021 Leggett et al., 2021 Asano et al., 2021 D’adamo et al., 2021 Flynn et al., 2019 Musick et al., 2020 Kumra et al., 2021 Vanderpool et al., 2020
Did the study address a clearly focused issue? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the cohort recruited in an acceptable way? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell b Can't Tell b Yes
Worth Continuing? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the exposure accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell b Yes Yes
Was the outcome accurately measured to minimise bias? Yes Can’t Tell a Yes Yes Yes Can't Tell a Yes Yes
Have the authors identified all important confounding factors? Can’t Tell a Can’t Tell a Can’t Tell d Can’t Tell a No d No f No b/f No b
Have they taken account of the confounding factors in the design and/or analysis? No a Yes Can’t Tell a Yes No f Can’t Tell a Can’t Tell a Yes
Was the follow up of subjects complete enough? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Was the follow up of subjects long enough? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Do you believe the results? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Can the results be applied to the local population? Yes Can’t Tell c Yes Yes Yes No i Yes No h
Do the results of this study fit with other available evidence? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Can’t Tell g Yes Yes
Uncertainty Score 3 3 1 1 4 9 4 4
  1. Reasons: aNot reported, bSelection bias/Convenience sampling/Elective course, cPoorly designed surveys, dInadequate controlling for multiple confounders, eHigh attrition rate, fNot performed, gPoor overall quality of study, hLow sample size, iPopulation difficult to reproduce