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Table 1 Univariable associations of 4-HCS overall score with demographic and education-related characteristics for undergraduate medical students (n = 165)

From: Student characteristics associated with interpersonal skills in medical consultations

Characteristics 4-HCSb
Mean (SD)
β regression coefficient (95%CI)a
Unadjusted p
Gender Men (n = 54) 72.4 (13.5) −4.4 (− 8.2;-0.6) Reference 0.024
Women (n = 111) 76.8 (10.6)
Research laboratory clerkship Yes (n = 29) 79.6 (8.7) 5.1 (0.4;9.9) 0.032
No (n = 136) 74.5 (12.2) Reference
International clinical placement Yes (n = 47) 79.4 (10.4) 5.6 (1.7;9.5) 0.006
No (n = 118) 73.8 (11.9) Reference  
No. of attempts at MCAT 1 (n = 79) 76.7 (11.2) 2.5 (− 1.1;6.1) 0.180
> 1 (n = 86) 74.2 (12.2) Reference
First year examination score 1st quartile [68.3–71.2] 73.0 (12.7) Reference  
2nd quartile [71.3–73.5] 78.5 (11.5) 5.6 (0.4;10.7)  
3rd quartile [73.6–75.8] 76.6 (11.1) 3.7 (−1.2;8.5) 0.866
4th quartile [75.9–87.6] 74.2 (11.1) 1.3 (− 3.6;6.2)  
Second year examination score 1st quartile [51.8–66.4] 72.9 (11.4) Reference  
2nd quartile [66.5–70.9] 76.5 (11.7) 3.6 (−1.5;8.7)  
3rd quartile [71.0–75.3] 77.0 (10.0) 4.2 (− 0.9;9.3) 0.292
4th quartile [75.4–87.0] 74.9 (10.6) 2.0 (−3.2;7.3)  
Third year examination score 1st quartile [38.0–62.0] 73.3 (15.2) Reference  
2nd quartile [62.1–66.7] 75.7 (10.8) 2.4 (−2.6;7.5)  
3rd quartile [66.8–71.7] 77.1 (9.9) 3.7 (−1.5;8.9) 0.302
4th quartile [71.8–84.3] 75.3 (10.7) 2.0 (−3.2;7.2)  
Medicine clerkship No (n = 2) 85.1 (2.3) Reference  
One (n = 8) 76.9 (10.3) −8.3 (−26.5;10.0)  
Two (n = 35) 77.6 (11.5) −7.5 (−24.3;9.2)  
Three (n = 75) 75.0 (11.8) −10.2 (− 26.7;6.4) 0.038
Four (n = 40) 74.8 (11.6) −10.3 (−27.0;6.4)  
Five (n = 5) 64.5 (15.0) −20.7 (−40.0;-1.4)  
Surgery clerkship No (n = 28) 74.1 (13.5) Reference  
One (n = 80) 77.0 (9.8) 2.8 (−2.3;8.0)  
Two (n = 46) 74.0 (13.1) −0.1 (−5;7;5;5) 0.478
Three (n = 10) 71.5 (14.6) −2.7 (−11.2;5.9)  
Four (n = 1) 80.8 6.6 (−17.1;30.3)  
  1. Abbreviations: MCAT Medical College Admission Test, CI Confidence Interval, 4-HCS 4 Habits Coding Scheme, SD Standard Deviation
  2. a β regression coefficients quantified the change in 4-HCS score for each independent variable category relative to the reference, with null value equal to 0
  3. b 4-HCS range: [23–115]