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Table 4 Means and standard deviations (in parentheses) for self-report measures pre-training, post-training and mean change in score

From: Can stoic training develop medical student empathy and resilience? A mixed-methods study

Measure   Mean Score Minimum Score Maximum Score
Stoic Ideation Pre-Training 277.77 (27.53) 227.00 343
(SABS) Post-Training 297.82 (33.56) 211.00 350
Δ SABS 20.05 (31.25) − 51.00 92.00
Resilience Pre-Training 3.19 (0.90) 1.83 5.00
(BRS) Post-Training 3.63 (0.84) 2.16 5.00
Δ BRS 0.44 (0.88) −1.01 2.40
Empathy Pre-Training 99.46 (19.09) 67.00 128.00
(JSE) Post-Training 122.46 (12.87) 92.00 138.00
Δ JES 23.00 (23.24) −18.00 64.00