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Table 2 Cognitive contributions to therapeutic errors

From: Types of therapeutic errors in the management of osteoporosis made by physicians and medical students

Type Students’ therapeutic errors (N = 644) Physicians’
therapeutic errors
(N = 223)
a. Faulty knowledge 247 (38%) 78 (35%)
Lack of knowledge of a necessary therapeutic action 119 29
Lack of knowledge of a special indication 96 30
Lack of knowledge of contraindications 32 19
b. Faulty context generation and interpretation 365 (57%) 128 (57%)
Misidentification of information as a contraindication 39 16
Failure in recognizing contraindications 7 2
Underestimation of a finding in the process of considering patients` individual risk 100 43
Faulty interpretation of results resulting in “undertreatment” 155 48
Overestimation of a finding in the process of considering patients’ individual risks 30 7
Faulty interpretation of results resulting in “overtreatment” 34 9
Failure to leave the common path of procedures 0 3
c. Faulty metacognition 32 (5%) 17 (8%)
Lack of confidence 22 12
Possible overconfidence 10 5