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Table 1 Statistical comparison of the scores of the QoL and DASS-21 scales according to their classes

From: Effect of distance learning on the quality of life, anxiety and stress levels of dental students during the COVID-19 pandemic

  Dental Students’ Classes
  1 2 3 4 5 Post-Hoc Tests p
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD 1–2 1–3 1–4 1–5 2–3 2–4 2–5 3–4 3–5 4–5  
  DASS 21
Anxiety 14.37 ± 6.55 13.97 ± 6.48 16.56 ± 7.04 15.74 ± 6.56 15.15 ± 6.52 NS * NS NS ** NS NS NS NS NS .040
Depression 15.03 ± 8.25 14.67 ± 6.93 17.3 ± 9.01 15.79 ± 8.28 14.41 ± 8.35 NS NS NS NS * NS NS NS ** NS .038
Stress 13.9 ± 6.31 12.5 ± 6.27 15.79 ± 7.98 15.23 ± 7.74 15.05 ± 6.75 NS NS NS NS ** ** * NS NS NS .016
  WHOQOL BREF
General Quality Of Life 7.14 ± 1.59 7.03 ± 1.61 6.8 ± 1.71 6.86 ± 1.49 6.89 ± 1.49 NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS NS
Physical Health 22.75 ± 3.94 23.24 ± 3.7 22.25 ± 3.98 21.75 ± 3.76 22.56 ± 3.41 NS NS NS NS NS ** NS NS NS NS NS
Psychological 19.95 ± 3.22 20.56 ± 3.56 19.92 ± 3.96 19.52 ± 3.37 20.33 ± 3.51 NS NS NS NS NS * NS NS NS NS NS
Social Relationships 9.22 ± 2.79 10.5 ± 2.33 10.36 ± 2.62 9.49 ± 2.71 10.09 ± 2.54 ** ** NS * NS ** NS ** NS NS .004
Environmental 29.25 ± 5.42 28.37 ± 5.26 27.4 ± 5.44 27.11 ± 4.93 28.56 ± 5.58 NS * * NS NS NS NS NS NS * .033
Total 88.12 ± 13.78 90.21 ± 13.72 86.86 ± 14.43 84.15 ± 13.14 88.33 ± 13.69 NS NS NS NS NS ** NS NS NS * .037
  1. Abbreviations: NS Not significant, p, Results of One-way ANOVA test (Post Hoc (LSD) test), SD Standard Deviation; *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001