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Table 3 Past and potential barriers to career advancement (n = 2,663). Respondents first selected the single most pressing career obstacle. They next selected all hindrances that they have encountered in their career; therefore, for this question, percentages were calculated based on the total number of survey respondents in each category

From: Characteristics, barriers, and career intentions of a national cohort of LGBTQ+ MD/PhD and DO/PhD trainees

  LGBTQ+  non-LGBTQ+ 
MD/PhD or DO/PhD n (%) MD/DO n (%) MD/PhD or DO/PhD n (%) MD/DO n (%)
Most pressing career obstacle
 Lack of opportunity/funding 11 (24.44) 2 (1.83) 125 (27.23) 78 (3.80)
 Not finding position in desired location 5 (11.11) 12 (11.00) 34 (7.40) 190 (9.26)
 Loan repayment 1 (2.22) 19 (17.43) 10 (2.17) 347 (16.92)
 Malpractice/lawsuit 0 (0) 1 (0.91) 1 (0.21) 42 (2.04)
 Under-compensation 1 (2.22) 2 (1.83) 5 (1.08) 97 (4.73)
 Discrimination/biases against your gender/ethnicity/sexual orientation 3 (6.66) 8 (7.33) 3 (0.65) 19 (0.92)
 Sexual harassment 1 (2.22) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (0.04)
 Balancing family and work responsibilities 12 (26.66) 51 (46.78) 173 (37.69) 1082 (52.78)
 Balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities 5 (11.11) 7 (6.422) 92 (20.04) 124 (6.04)
 Satisfactory professional advancement 3 (6.66) 6 (5.50) 13 (2.83) 50 (2.43)
 Other 3 (6.66) 1 (0.91) 3 (0.65) 20 (0.97)
Total (n) 45 109 459 2050
Past hindrances to career advancement
 Lack of opportunity/funding 12 (26.66) 18 (16.50) 91 (19.82) 389 (18.90)
 Not finding position in desired location 4 (8.88) 9 (8.26) 44 (9.58) 154 (7.51)
 Loan repayment 1 (2.22) 24 (22.01) 33 (7.18) 482 (23.51)
 Malpractice/lawsuit 0 (0) 1 (0.91) 1 (0.21) 19 (0.92)
 Under-compensation 2 (4.44) 6 (5.50) 43 (9.36) 123 (6.00)
 Discrimination/biases against your gender/ethnicity/sexual orientation 3 (6.66) 8 (7.33) 3 (0.65) 19 (0.92)
 Sexual harassment 7 (15.50) 17 (15.50) 38 (8.27) 134 (6.53)
 Balancing family and work responsibilities 2 (4.44) 4 (3.67) 6 (1.31) 18 (0.88)
 Balancing clinical, research, and education responsibilities 20 (44.44) 52 (47.70) 167 (36.38) 835 (40.70)
 Satisfactory professional advancement 4 (8.88) 15 (13.70) 59 (12.80) 190 (9.26)
 Other 5 (11.10) 3 (2.75) 17 (3.70) 76 (3.70)
Total (n) 45 109 459 2050