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Table 2 Principles of interprofessional simulation-based education and data collection methods for each principle

From: From ideal to real: a qualitative study of the implementation of in situ interprofessional simulation-based education

  Principle Description Source Observations Interviews
1 Equitable Distribution Planning, implementation and learning are done jointly at every level involving all relevant professions. Distribution of roles and responsibilities across professions is balanced. WHO IPE/CAIPE IPE/Boet IPSE x x
2 Active Learning Activities that promote learners’ cognitive engagement (active participants, not passive bystanders) using strategies such as multiple repetitions, feedback, task variation, or intentional task sequencing BEME SBE/Cook SBE x x
3 Interprofessional Competency-Based Learning Objectives Program have clearly defined learning objectives that focus on competencies for collaborative practice, including interprofessional knowledge, behaviors/skills, and attitudes. Boet IPSE/WHO IPE/CAIPE IPE/BEME SBE x x
4 Interprofessional Competency-Based Assessment Program assess learners’ achievement of clearly defined outcomes or benchmarks for competency in collaborative practice, including interprofessional knowledge, behaviors/skills, and attitudes. Boet IPSE/WHO IPE/CAIPE IPE/BEME SBE x x
5 Psychological Safety The program sets up an atmosphere of social acceptance of feedback from all peers, notably through the physical environment and through pre-briefing. BEME SBE/WHO IPE/Boet IPSE x x
6 Repeated and Distributed Practice There is an opportunity for learners to engage in focused, repeated practice where the intent is skill improvement over a period of time. Cook SBE/BEME SBE x x
7 Attention to Differences and Hierarchy Educators discern and address diversity and differences between groups in educational, professional, and cultural background with sensitivity. They also raise issues related to power inequities between learners. CAIPE IPE/Boet IPSE x x
8 Feedback during Debriefing Debriefing occurs during the simulation session and includes feedback and information on performance provided to learners. Feedback can be provided by facilitators and by peers. Debriefing should be attributed to most experienced educators. BEME SBE/Cook SBE/Boet IPSE x x
9 Sociological Fidelity Scenarios have high levels of social realism and reflect how teams in real life are arranged. BEME SBE/WHO IPE/Boet IPSE x x
10 Program Evaluation Programs are rigorously evaluated as early as possible and involve major stakeholders. The purpose of the evaluation is stated clearly and considers learning outcomes and theoretical perspectives. Results from program evaluation may be disseminated. CAIPE IPE/WHO IPE/Boet IPSE   x
11 Train Facilitators Educators receive training to understand the ethos, principles and methods for IPSE. This training focuses on how to develop, deliver, and evaluate interprofessional simulation-based education. CAIPE IPE/WHO IPE/Boet IPSE   x
12 Institutional Support Institutional policies support educators and health workers to promote IPSE. They provide adequate financial support (remuneration models, funding streams, incentives for workers to participate), adequate time allocations (regular meetings for interprofessional champions), and adequate space and facilities. WHO IPE/CAIPE IPE/Boet IPSE   x