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Table 1 Characteristics of Rogers’ five categories of innovation adopters. Adopted from Humbert [9], Porter and Graham [10], Porter, Graham, Spring and Welch [12], Rogers [13]

From: Medical teachers’ experience of emergency remote teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-institutional study

Category Characteristics
Innovators The first 2.5% of individuals to adopt an innovation / technology
They have substantial technical expertise and self-learn new technologies
They are always ready to adopt a new technology for their day-to-day work
Early adopters The 13.5% of individuals who adopt after the innovators
They have good technical expertise and explore new technologies
They adopt new technologies with more discretion than innovators
They serve as examples and opinion leaders among other potential adopters
Early majority The 34% of individuals who adopt after the early adopters
They are fairly comfortable with technology
They need incentives, compelling evidence of efficiency and recommendation from opinion leaders to adopt new innovations
Late majority The 34% of individuals who adopt after the early majority
They are less comfortable with technology compared to the early majority
They only adopt a new technology under peer pressure or necessity
They require suitable technical support for adopt new innovations
Laggards The last 16% of individuals who adopt an innovation (if ever)
They resist adopting to new innovations even under peer pressure or necessity
They tend to be disconnected from the social network of their system