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Table 3 Level of difficulties observed during the 2020/2021s iteration group assignments by DT domain

From: Teaching design thinking as a tool to address complex public health challenges in public health students: a case study

DT Phase

Mean Difficulties Scorea b (± SD)


3.12 (1.04)

Problem Finding/Defining the problem

2.77 (1.31)


3.31 (0.97)


2.77 (0.90)


4.46 (0.52)

  1. DT Design Theory
  2. aStep 1: Group overall scores calculated out of 60 for each evaluator (N = 13 per evaluator). Cronbach’s weighted alphas calculated; Moderate level of Agreement identified (KW = 0.44). Step 2: Mean evaluators’ difficulties scores calculated by DT phase and group (N = 13 per DT phase). Step 3. Overall Mean and SDs calculated by DT phase
  3. bScores from 1 (substantial observed difficulties) to 5 (no observed difficulties)