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Table 1 Design Thinking Block Outline and Assessment (2019/2020; 2020/2021classes) Master of Public Health, Division of Public Health, School of Public Health, Physiotherapy and Sports Sciences, University College Dublin

From: Teaching design thinking as a tool to address complex public health challenges in public health students: a case study

Design Thinking Block: Stage Components
DT seminar and Lectures (6 h in total) • Aims: To describe the design thinking method and provide an overview of each of the recommended steps
Two-hour seminar dictated by a facilitator from the UCD innovation academy
Facilitator: non-healthcare background with experience facilitating design hackathons for diverse students’ cohorts
Students to complete the “Carbon footprint” challenge
Four hours of asynchronous lectures on leadership, design thinking in healthcare and empathy tools
Learning Outcomes To apply the DT method to a public health challenge or health service challenge of their choice
Specific learning outcomes by DT stage:
Empathy:
◦ The team identified and used a range of tools to conduct the empathy stage. Range of tools: a) literature review b) interviews c) observation d) surveys e) social media comments f) reports g) pictures/experience e) extreme users’ interviews
Problem statement:
◦ The problem has been redefined or defined considering the empathy stage
◦ The problem statement addressed the main obstacle -as identified by the empathy stage- to achieve the desirable outcome-
Ideation:
◦ How many divergent ideas proposed the team to address the problem?
Overall assessment:
◦ The solution aligns with the problem, the problem statement, the empathy stage, and the ideation
Communication:
◦ The team communicated the idea in a memorable way
Assignment • Step 1: Identify one public health or healthcare management challenge of choice
• Step 2: Self-group in teams of four to five
• Step 3: Conduct an empathy stage – literature review, ethnography, semi-structured interviews, observations
• Step 4: Define the problem in light of the empathy stage process
• Step 5: Ideation: propose as many as divergent ideas as possible
Students were given 3 weeks to complete the assignment with 1–2 feedback sessions as required
Pitch Students pitch their assignments and submit a short report on the process and lessons learnt
Module assessment based on Kirkpatrick Model • Level 1 – Reaction: Overall satisfaction with the activity
• Level 2 – Learning Outcomes: Achievement of learning outcomes during the course by the students and by two independent assessors
• Level 3 – Behaviour: Intention to use the learning outcome in the workplace
• Level 4 – Action
  1. DT Design Theory