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Table 1 Participants’ characteristics that influence participation in research activities

From: Research involvement among undergraduate health profession students in a resource-limited setting: awareness, attitude, motivators and barriers

Variable Total Participation in research
Chi-square/Fischer’s exact test Binary logistic regression
N (%) Yes, n (%) No, n (%) P-value aOR (95% CI) p-value
Total 398 (100) 120(32.5) 249 (67.5) N/A
Age     0.001   
 < 25 302 (75.9) 78 (28) 201 (72)   Reference  
 ≥ 25 96 (24.1) 42 (46.7) 48 (53.3)   1.9 (1.2–3.2) 0.012
Mean (SD) 23.9 (3.7) 24.6 (3.5) 23.5 (3.8)    
Sex     0.002   
 Female 131 (32.9) 26 (21.7) 94 (78.3)   Reference  
 Male 267 (67.1) 94 (37.8) 155 (62.2)   2.1 (1.2–3.6) 0.008
Course     0.246   
 MBChB 220 (55.3) 73 (35.6) 132 (64.4)   Reference  
 BDS 10 (2.5) 1 (11.1) 8 (88.9)   1.1 (0.5–2.2) 0.780
 BNUR 52 (13.1) 16 (33.3) 32 (66.7)   0.2 (0–2.1) 0.183
 BPARM 44 (11.1) 8 (20) 32 (80)   0.5 (0.2–1.3) 0.177
 Others 72 (18.1) 22 (32.8) 45 (67.2)   1 (0.5–2) 0.964
Year of study     < 0.001   
 Year 1 43 (10.8) 5 (13.5) 32 (86.5)   Reference  
 Year 2 111 (27.9) 26 (26.3) 73 (73.7)   2.1 (0.7–6) 0.176
 Year 3 97 (24.4) 32 (35.2) 59 (64.8)   3.2 (1.1–9.3) 0.033
 Year 4 119 (29.9) 38 (33.3) 76 (66.7)   3.3 (1.1–9.5) 0.028
 Year 5 28 (7) 19 (67.9) 9 (32.1)   11.6 (3.2–42.1) < 0.001
University ownership     0.426   
 Private 91 (22.9) 24 (28.9) 59 (71.1)   Reference  
 Public 307 (77.1) 96 (33.6) 190 (66.4)   0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.527
Student’s education funding status     0.224   
 Government funded 145 (36.4) 38 (28.6) 95 (71.4)   Reference  
 Private funded 253 (63.6) 82 (34.7) 154 (65.3)   1.3 (0.8–2.3) 0.282
  1. N: Total sample, n: proportion of the sample, N/A Not applicable, aOR Adjusted odds ratio, CI Confidence interval