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Table 3 Comparison between strategies the program director used and the socialization tactics OS

From: Learning the ropes: strategies program directors use to facilitate organizational socialization of newcomer residents, a qualitative study

Strategy Description Name tactic in OS
Approaching newcomer residents as a group or as individuals This strategy sets out how PDs focus on both group and individual level. Some PDs actively support the socialization process at group level by organizing group activities. Other PDs observe the socialization process of peer groups of residents without any active involvement. PDs mainly support the socialization process of individuals by focusing on residents with poor performance. Collective and individual socialization tactic
Facilitating newcomer residents in learning their new role This strategy describes PDs’ support to residents in learning their new role, which varies from facilitating newcomers with an extensive introduction program to implicit learning of their new role at the workplace. Once an introduction program is implemented, socialization is often an unintentional effect rather than an explicit learning objective. Formal and informal socialization tactic
Letting newcomer residents get acquainted with many supervisors This strategy outlines how PDs let newcomers get acquainted with other health care professionals (doctors, nurses, secretary, et cetera). Some PDs actively facilitate direct contact between newcomer residents and other health care professionals. Other PDs do not introduce newcomers to other health care professionals. Sequential and random socialization tactic
Responding to the development of newcomer residents during their socialization process This strategy focuses on how PDs let newcomers adjust to their new role over time. Some PDs change the content of the role after a fixed time frame without taking the individual residents’ development into consideration. Other PDs, however, change the content of the role without pre-defining a time frame, taking the residents’ individual development into consideration. Fixed and variable socialization tactic
Making use of role modeling This strategy sets out that PDs often make use of role modeling to facilitate the socialization processes of residents. Other health care workers as well as the PDs themselves can be role models. If PDs perceive to be a role model themselves, they vary in the extent to which they make their role modeling behaviors explicit. Unlike OS theory, no examples of socialization without role modeling emerged from the data. Serial and disjunctive socialization tactic
Acting upon expectations of newcomer residents’ adjustment to their new role This strategy describes the PDs’ expectations of newcomer residents’ adjustment. Some PDs adapt their approach to fit newcomer residents’ characteristics, others expect newcomer residents to adjust to the (implicit) norms of the workplace. Investiture and divestiture socialization tactic