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Table 2 Self-reported knowledge, barriers, and challenges in headache disorders

From: Barriers and gaps in headache education: a national cross-sectional survey of neurology residents in Denmark

  All participants (n = 54) Introduction program (n = 25) Main program (n = 29)
Self-reported knowledge of headache disordersa Mean (SD) Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Migraine 3.91 (0.65) 3.76 (0.83) 4.03 (0.42)
Tension-type headache 3.94 (0.65) 3.80 (0.82) 4.07 (0.46)
Cluster headache 3.68 (0.75) 3.33 (0.92) 3.89 (0.49)
Trigeminal neuralgia 3.48 (0.84) 3.12 (0.93) 3.79 (0.62)
Medication overuse headache 3.56 (0.86) 3.28 (0.89) 3.39 (0.77)
Post-traumatic headache 3.15 (0.97) 2.96 (0.98) 3.31 (0.97)
Patient and disease-oriented barriersb n (%) n (%) n (%)
Challenging diagnosis 31 (57%) 15 (60%) 16 (55%)
Comorbidities 23 (43%) 9 (36%) 14 (48%)
Patient anxiety of adverse events 13 (23%) 4 (16%) 9 (31%)
Treatment failure due to adverse events 19 (35%) 6 (24%) 13 (45%)
Unclear medical history 31 (57%) 17 (68%) 14 (48%)
Lack of effective treatment options 31 (57%) 12 (48%) 19 (66%)
No challenges 3 (6%) 1 (4%) 2 (7%)
Other 8 (15%) 3 (12%) 5 (17%)
Physician-oriented barriersb n (%) n (%) n (%)
Own lack of knowledge 17 (31%) 12 (48%) 5 (17%)
Find headache patients difficult to diagnose and treat 26 (48%) 12 (48%) 14 (48%)
Challenges in physician/patient collaboration 17 (31%) 6 (24%) 11 (38%)
Insufficient consultation time 15 (28%) 3 (12%) 12 (41%)
Lack of prescribed treatment efficacy 31 (57%) 16 (64%) 15 (52%)
Insufficient support from other specialists 13 (24%) 2 (8%) 11 (38%)
No barriers 5 (9%) 3 (12%) 2 (7%)
  1. aScale from 1–5; 1: very bad, 5: very good. bParticipants were asked to choose one or more options