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Table 4 Overall tests for possible association between selected covariates and learning environment scale scores

From: Perceptions of the academic learning environment among occupational therapy students – changes across a three-year undergraduate study program

Variable Clear goals and standards
F p
Age 0.01 0.93
Sex 1.09 0.30
Study efforts 0.30 0.58
Educational institution 1.32 0.26
Time 1.07 0.34
  Emphasis on independence
Variable F p
Age 3.52 0.06
Sex 0.40 0.53
Study efforts 0.04 0.85
Educational institution 1.19 0.32
Time 3.22 <  0.05
  Good teaching
Variable F p
Age 0.19 0.67
Sex 0.35 0.55
Study efforts 0.10 0.75
Educational institution 2.06 0.07
Time 11.87 <  0.001
  Appropriate workload
Variable F p
Age 0.05 0.82
Sex 0.36 0.55
Study efforts 6.75 <  0.05
Educational institution 2.57 <  0.05
Time 0.01 0.99
  Generic skills
Variable F p
Age 4.52 <  0.05
Sex 0.00 0.96
Study efforts 0.52 0.47
Educational institution 1.48 0.20
Time 12.63 <  0.001
  Feedback
Variable F p
Age 0.13 0.72
Sex 1.28 0.26
Study efforts 0.46 0.50
Educational institution 0.18 0.97
Time 2.91 0.06
  Student satisfaction
Variable F p
Age 0.01 0.91
Sex 0.68 0.41
Study efforts 0.01 0.92
Educational institution 1.20 0.31
Time 2.17 0.12
  1. ‘Educational institution’ refers to overall differences in scale scores between the education institutions. ‘Time’ refers to linear change in scale scores according to time of measurement