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Table 6 Factors influencing knowledge gain

From: Traffic safety knowledge gain of ambulance drivers after simulator-based training

n = 84 B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß
Step 1: demographic data
 • age (years) −0.06 0.02 − 0.209*ǂ − 0.02 0.03 −0.063 − 0.07 0.06 − 0.257 − 0.24 0.16 − 0.830 − 0.31 0.19 −1.076 − 0.32 0.20 − 1.097 − 0.36 0.21 − 1.231+
 • gender 0.53 0.49 0.090 −0.46 0.72 −0.070 −0.71 0.74 −0.108 0.07 0.76 0.010 0.07 0.78 0.011 0.19 0.82 0.028 0.07 0.85 0.010
Step 2: pretest
 • previous knowledge     0.39 0.12 0.351**ǂ 0.37 0.12 0.339**ǂ 0.28 0.12 0.258*ǂ 0.28 0.12 0.253* 0.33 0.13 0.301*ǂ 0.32 0.14 0.289*ǂ
Step 3: work experience
 • qualification        0.18 0.79 .027 0.26 0.76 0.038 0.47 0.77 0.070 0.21 0.82 0.032 0.09 0.86 0.013
 • EMS duration (months)        0.01 0.01 0.234 0.00 0.01 0.101 0.01 0.01 0.195 0.00 0.01 0.073 0.00 0.01 0.126
 • employment type        −0.95 0.90 − 0.120 − 0.43 0.88 − 0.055 − 0.79 0.94 − 0.100 −0.77 0.96 −0.097 − 0.85 0.99 − 0.107
Step 4: driving experience
 • license possession (years)           0.21 0.16 0.719 0.27 0.19 0.909 0.30 0.20 1.022 0.32 0.21 1.085
 • number of licenses           −0.16 0.93 −0.019 − 0.39 0.95 − 0.048 − 0.37 1.02 − 0.045 − 0.32 1.07 − 0.038
 • yearly driving mileage (in km)           −0.00 0.00 − 0.269*ǂ − 0.00 0.00 − 0.142 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.124 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.105
 • traffic violations           −0.74 0.68 − 0.129 − 0.74 0.69 − 0.128 − 0.08 0.75 −0.153 − 0.90 0.08 − 0.156
 • traffic safety trainings           1.21 0.65 0.203+ 0.98 0.66 0.163 1.15 0.71 0.193 1.19 0.73 0.199
Step 5: subjective attitude
 • driving competence              −0.15 0.23 −0.075 − 0.17 0.26 −0.084 − 0.15 0.26 − 0.074
 • accident likelihood              0.18 0.20 0.111 0.25 0.21 0.156 0.24 0.22 0.148
 • RS serious RV              3.85 1.30 0.468**ǂ 3.98 1.33 0.484**ǂ 4.08 1.37 0.497**ǂ
 • RS moderate RV              −0.49 0.92 −0.94 0.22 1.03 0.042 −0.10 1.10 −0.019
 • RS light RV              −1.40 0.97 −0.280 −1.49 1.05 −0.296 −1.48 1.08 −0.295
 • RS regular driving situations              −0.03 0.92 − 0.006 − 0.45 0.97 − 0.085 − 0.26 1.01 − 0.049
Step 6: traffic related personality
 • extraversion                 −0.02 0.95 −0.003 0.04 0.97 0.006
 • sensation seeking                 0.55 0.76 0.095 0.61 0.81 0.105
 • conscientiousness                 0.43 0.58 0.093 0.41 0.59 0.089
 • disagreeableness                 1.41 0.78 0.230+ 1.30 0.82 0.212
 • reactance                 −0.22 0.89 −0.035 −0.15 0.93 −0.024
Step 7: Motivation
 • motivation to use learned                    −0.12 0.68 −0.041
 • overall subjective knowledge gain                    0.23 0.58 0.082
 • safety alternatives                    0.25 0.62 0.085
R2    .022    .142**ǂ    .171*ǂ    .303**ǂ    .393**ǂ    .437*ǂ    .446*ǂ
Δ R    .022    .119***ǂ    .029    .132*    .090    .044    .009
F (df)    0.931 (2,81)    4.408 (3,80)    2.642 (6,77)    2.845 (11,72)    2.513 (17,66)    2.148 (22,61)    1.864 (25,58)
  1. n number of participants of the intervention group, SD standard deviation, R2 explained variance, ΔR2 change in explained variance, β beta coefficient with significance level +p ≤ .10, *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001
  2. ǂsignificant after Bonferroni adjustment (p ≤ .025); Variables and coding: RS = risk sensitivity of, RV = rule violation; gender (1 = female, 2 = male), qualification (0 = EMT, 1 = Paramedic), employment type (0 = part-time/voluntary, 1 = full-time), number of licenses (0 = B/C1, 1 = additional A, C and/or E), traffic violations & traffic safety trainings (0 = no, 1 = yes)