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Table 5 Factors influencing knowledge

From: Traffic safety knowledge gain of ambulance drivers after simulator-based training

n = 147 B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß B SE ß
Step 1: demographic data
 • age (years) −0.06 0.02 −0.209*ǂ −0.07 0.04 −0.269+ − 0.04 0.10 − 0.155 −0.02 0.10 −0.076 − 0.01 0.10 − 0.035 −0.04 0.11 −0.141
 • gender 0.53 0.49 0.090 0.58 0.50 0.099 0.77 0.51 0.131 0.60 0.52 0.103 0.60 0.52 0.101 0.59 0.53 0.100
Step 2: work experience
 • qualification     0.94 0.52 0.163+ 1.09 0.51 0.189* 1.16 0.52 0.200* 1.00 0.55 0.172+ 0.78 0.57 0.134
 • EMS duration (months)     0.00 0.00 0.069 0.00 0.00 0.026 0.00 0.00 0.079 0.00 0.00 0.025 0.00 0.00 0.047
 • employment type     0.13 0.68 0.018 0.57 0.68 0.076 0.56 0.70 0.075 0.47 0.71 0.063 0.21 0.71 0.029
Step 3: driving experience
 • license possession (years)        −0.01 0.10 −0.046 − 0.03 0.11 − 0.110 − 0.02 0.11 − 0.074 − 0.00 0.11 − 0.010
 • number of licenses        1.13 0.63 0.157+ 1.22 0.65 0.170+ 1.21 0.67 0.169+ 1.12 0.67 0.157+
 • yearly driving mileage (in km)        −0.00 0.00 −0.136 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.106 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.099 − 0.00 0.00 − 0.089
 • traffic violations        −0.96 0.46 −0.192* − 0.92 0.47 − 0.183* − 0.92 0.48 − 0.148+ − 0.88 0.48 − 0.174+
 • traffic safety trainings        1.06 0.45 0.199*ǂ 1.02 0.46 0.191*ǂ 0.84 0.47 0.158+ 0.91 0.47 0.170+
Step 4: subjective attitude
 • driving competence           −0.16 0.16 − 0.085 − 0.16 0.16 − 0.088 − 0.16 0.16 − 0.088
 • accident likelihood           −0.01 0.12 − 0.006 0.02 0.12 0.017 0.00 0.12 0.001
 • RS serious RV           0.91 0.88 0.119 1.17 0.90 0.153 0.99 0.90 0.131
 • RS moderate RV           −0.84 0.56 −0.186 − 0.67 0.58 − 0.119 − 0.66 0.60 − 0.147
 • RS light RV           −0.16 0.64 −0.035 − 0.37 0.67 − 0.082 −0.51 0.67 −0.115
 • RS regular driving situations           −0.01 0.53 − 0.002 − 0.09 0.54 − 0.021 − 0.08 0.55 − 0.018
Step 5: traffic related personality
 • extraversion              0.96 0.67 0.151 0.91 0.67 0.144
 • sensation seeking              0.12 0.50 0.022 0.38 0.51 0.069
 • conscientiousness              −0.42 0.38 −0.103 − 0.42 0.38 −0.102
 • disagreeableness              −0.34 0.50 −0.068 − 0.36 0.50 − 0.072
 • reactance              −0.73 0.62 −0.123 − 0.80 0.64 − 0.134
Step 6: Motivation
 • motivation to use learned                 0.61 0.39 0.208
 • overall subjective knowledge gain                 −0.16 0.38 −0.061
 • safety alternatives                 0.12 0.38 0.045
R2    .043*    .075*    .165**ǂ    .195*ǂ    .223*    .254*
ΔR2    .043*    .032    .090**ǂ    .030    .028    .031
F (df)    3.220 (2144)    2.288 (5141)    2.689 (10,136)    1.966 (16,130)    1.708 (21,125)    1.733 (24,122)
  1. n number of participants, SD standard deviation, R2 explained variance, ΔR2 change in explained variance, β beta coefficient with significance level +p ≤ .10, *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001
  2. ǂsignificant after Bonferroni adjustment (p ≤ .025); Variables and coding: RS = risk sensitivity of, RV = rule violation; gender (1 = female, 2 = male), qualification (0 = EMT, 1 = Paramedic), employment type (0 = part-time/voluntary, 1 = full-time), number of licenses (0 = B/C1, 1 = additional A, C and/or E), traffic violations & traffic safety trainings (0 = no, 1 = yes)