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Table 1 Participants’ perception of the most effective methods for online learning (N = 353)

From: The online learning experience and reported headaches associated with screen exposure time among Saudi health sciences students during the COVID-19 pandemic

Items Synchronous Asynchronous
Audio-Video-Text- based Audio-Text based Text-based Audio-Video-Text- based Audio-Text- based Text-based
No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%) No. (%)
The most effective method for group discussion 159(45.82) 137(39.48) 12(3.46) 27 (7.78) 9 (2.59) 3 (0.86)
The most effective method for group clarification session 155(44.67) 129(37.18) 21 (6.05) 24 (6.92) 14 (4.03) 4 (1.15)
The most effective method for group interactive lectures 178 (51.45) 115(33.24) 23 (6.65) 19 (5.49) 8 (2.31) 3 (0.87)
Average 47.31% 36.63% 5.38% 6.73% 2.98% 0.96%
89.32% 10.68%