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Table 3 Baseline characteristics of flipped classroom medical students and traditional lecture-based classroom students prospectively selected by propensity score matching (n = 90)

From: Implementing a flipped classroom model in an evidence-based medicine curriculum for pre-clinical medical students: evaluating learning effectiveness through prospective propensity score-matched cohorts

Variable LB group (n = 45) FC group (n = 45) SMD p-value
n/mean %/sd n/mean %/sd
Age 23.81 (1.15) 23.20 (3.17) 0.272 0.229
Gender      0.134 0.667
 Male 26 (57.8%) 28 (62.2%)   
 Female 19 (42.2%) 17 (37.8%)   
Admission route      0.146 0.223
 Interview 24 (53.3%) 16 (35.6%)   
 Recommendation 6 (13.3%) 7 (15.6%)   
vExamination 15 (33.3%) 22 (48.9%)   
Student Loan      0.373 0.079
 Yes 2 (4.4%) 7 (15.6%)   
 No 43 (95.6%) 38 (84.4%)   
Part-time job      0.090 0.384
 Yes 15 (33.3%) 19 (42.2%)   
 No 30 (66.7%) 26 (57.8%)   
Personalities (Big Five Mini-markers)
 Extroversion 45.10 (10.46) 42.02 (11.77) 0.377 0.193
 Openness 46.23 (5.48) 46.46 (9.29) 0.014 0.881
 Neuroticism 37.67 (8.22) 39.53 (8.42) 0.126 0.290
 Conscientiousness 49.60 (6.31) 49.66 (7.81) 0.073 0.965
 Agreeableness 54.51 (6.89) 53.58 (7.07) 0.228 0.527
Past academic performance 4.67 (0.58) 4.83 (0.78) 0.412 0.266
Pre-course test score in the EBM class 6.52 (1.65) 7.31 (1.41) 0.828 0.017
  1. LB Lecture-based, FC Flipped classroom, EBM Evidence-based medicine