Skip to main content

Table 2 Study design according to main and secondary outcomes and continents

From: Effectiveness of problem-based learning methodology in undergraduate medical education: a scoping review

  Comparative non-randomized Comparative AND randomized Survey or questionnaire Descriptive experience Expert opinion, editorial or comment Systematic review and meta-analysis Narrative review
Number of studies 32 16 45 21 5 4 1
Sample sizea 162
[20–1707]
121
[31–1649]
124
[14–569]
73
[16–561]
- 1652
[1003–2061]
-
Main outcomes
 Performance 21 14 10 6 1 3 1
 Knowledge retention 5 2 4 3 - 1 -
 Student satisfaction 6 - 25 5 - - -
 Tutor satisfaction - - 4 1 1 - -
 Not specified - - - 5 3 - -
 Other - - 2 1 - - -
Secondary outcomes
 Knowledge retention 3 - 1 1 - - -
 Student satisfaction 6 7 5 4 - 1 1
 Tutor satisfaction 1 - 5 3 - - -
 Social and/or communication skills 1 - 3 1 - - -
 Reasoning - - - 1 - - -
 Other 2 1 - - - 1 -
Continent
 Asia 6 8 22 5 - 4 -
 North America 16 2 10 9 1 - 1
 Europe 4 5 7 3 3 - -
 Africa 2 - 3 2 - - -
 Oceania 1 1 2 1 1 - -
 South America 3 - 1 1 - - -
  1. aSample size was available in 99 studies. Results are expressed in median and [range]