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Table 1 Characteristics of the 124 publications included in the scoping review

From: Effectiveness of problem-based learning methodology in undergraduate medical education: a scoping review

Characteristic of the publication Number (percentage)
Year of publication
 1990-1999 27 (22%)
 2000-2009 46 (37%)
 2010-2021 51 (41%)
Continents and countriesa
Asia 45 (36.3%)
  China (16), Saudi Arabia (12), Egypt, India, Nepal and United Arab Emirates (2) and otherb nine countries (1)
North America 39 (31.5%)
  United States of America (27) and Canada (12)
Europe 22 (17.7%)
  Turkey (5), Germany and United Kingdom (4), Spain (3), France (2) and otherc four countries (1)
Africa 7 (5.6%)
  South Africa (4), Botswana, Ghana and Uganda (1)
Oceania 6 (4.8%)
  Australia (5) and New Zealand (1)
South America 5 (4.0%)
  México (2), Argentina, Chile and Trinidad & Tobago (1)
Study population
 Students 94 (75.8%)
 Students and tutors 16 (12.9%)
 Tutors 6 (4.8%)
 Not specified 8 (6.5%)
Study design
 Survey or questionnaire 45 (36.3%)
 Comparative non-randomized study 32 (25.8%)
 Descriptive experience 21 (16.9%)
 Comparative and randomized study 16 (12.9%)
 Expert opinion, editorial or comment 5 (4.0%)
 Systematic review and meta-analysis 4 (3.2%)
 Narrative review 1 (0.8%)
Comparator
 Without comparison 66 (53.2%)
 With traditional or lecture-based learning 56 (45.2%)
 With simulation 2 (1.6%)
Main Outcomed
 Performance 56 (45.2%)
 Student satisfaction 36 (29.0%)
 Knowledge retention 15 (12.1%)
 Not specified 8 (6.5%)
 Tutor satisfaction 6 (4.8%)
 Other 3 (2.4%)
  1. aThe number of publications of each country appears in parentheses.
  2. bIncluding: Bahrain, Iran, South Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan and Vietnam.
  3. cIncluding: Belgium, Georgia, Netherlands and Sweden.
  4. dForty-eight studies included secondary outcomes: including student satisfaction (24), tutor satisfaction (9), knowledge retention (5), social and/or communication skills (5), reasoning (1) and other outcomes (4)