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Table.2 Comparison of the two groups regarding the mean scores of academic motivation and its dimensions

From: Online class or flipped-jigsaw learning? Which one promotes academic motivation during the COVID-19 pandemic?

Variable Groups Before
(Mean ± SD)
After
(Mean ± SD)
P-value
(within-group)a
Intrinsic motivation Synchronous online 58.125 ± 7.490 58.500 ± 8.958 0.725
Flipped-jigsaw 60.772 ± 8.569 65.045 ± 7.351 0.003
P-value (between-group)b 0.461 0.038  
Extrinsic motivation Synchronous online 48.575 ± 5.597 49.850 ± 5.681 0.131
Flipped-jigsaw 50.727 ± 7.289 53.840 ± 7.736 0.031
P-value (between-group) b 0.226 0.010  
Academic motivation (Total) Synchronous online 106.700 ± 11.223 108.350 ± 12.263 0.229
Flipped-jigsaw 111.500 ± 14.342 118.886 ± 13.026 0.002
P-value (between-group) b 0.285 0.007  
  1. a Paired t-test for within-group comparisons
  2. b ANCOVA for between-group comparisons