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Table 1 Longitudinal results of medical students’ mental health and perceived learning environment

From: A longitudinal investigation of mental health, perceived learning environment and burdens in a cohort of first-year German medical students’ before and during the COVID-19 ‘new normal’

       Overall   Post-hoc            
   Oct. 2019 Dec. 2019 June 2020 Dec. 2020    Oct 19– Dec 19   Oct 19–June 20   Oct 19–
Dec 20
  Dec 19–June 20   Dec 19– Dec 20   June 20–
Dec 20
 
  Max
Scoring
median
(IQR e)
median
(IQR e)
median
(IQR e)
median
(IQR e)
p r f p r f p r f p r f p r f p r f p r f
Depression a 27 5.0
(3.0–7.0)
7.0
(4.0–11.0)
7.0
(5.0–10.0)
7.0
(4.0–10.0)
<.001 .61 .001 .47 <.001 .50 .005 .42 >.99 >.99 >.99
Well-being b 25 12.0
(8.0–17.0)
9.0
(5.0–14.0)
11.0
(4.0–15.0)
12.0
(4.0–16.0)
.05 .35             
Burnout –
Emotional exhaustion c
6 1.33
(0.67–2.00)
3.0
(2.0–4.0)
3.0
(2.33–4.0)
2.67
(1.67–3.67)
<.001 >.99 <.001 .89 <.001 .96 <.001 .69 >.99 .63 .18
Burnout –
Personal accomplishment c
6 0.67
(0.0–1.33)
1.67
(1.0–3.0)
2.0
(1.0–3.0)
1.33
(0.67–2.33)
<.001 .84 <.001 .70 <.001 .67 .004 .42 .72 .18 .37
Burnout –
Depersonalisation c
6 0.0
(0.0–0.0)
0.33
(0.0–1.0)
0.67
(0.0–1.67)
0.33
(0.0–1.0)
<.001 .73 .01 .40 <.001 .57 .004 .43 >.99 >.99 >.99
    mean
(SD)
mean
(SD)
mean
(SD)
p η2 g        p   p   p  
Learning environment d 200   128.2
(21.4)
126.2
(22.5)
134.5
(18.2)
<.001 .14 -- h .90 .01   <.001  
  1. a Sum-score instrument: 0–4 no depression; 5–9 mild depression; 10–14 moderate depression; 15–19 moderately severe depression; 20–27 severe depression
  2. b Sum-score instrument: 0–5 severely below average; 6–9 below average; 10–13 average; 14–16 above average; 17–25 outstanding
  3. c Mean-score instrument: 0 = never … 6 = daily;
  4. d Sum-score instrument: 0–50 very bad learning environment; 51–100 many problems; 101–150 more positive than negative aspects; 151–200 excellent learning environment
  5. e Interquartile range 25–75%
  6. f Pearson’s r (effect size Friedman test): r = .1 small effect; r = .3 medium effect; r = .5 large effect
  7. g Cohen’s η (effect size repeated measures ANOVA): η2 = .01 small effect; η2 = .06 medium effect; η2 = .14 large effect
  8. h No post-hoc testing for October 2019. As students had just started their medical study programme, learning environment was not assessed