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Table 2 Means and Standard Deviations of Item 4 and Item 13 of the JSE

From: The effect of Humanitude care methodology on improving empathy: a six-year longitudinal study of medical students in Japan

  Item 4 Item 13
Test Administration M SD t-test M SD t-test
Year 1 (baseline) 5.73 1.48   6.18 1.15  
Pre-test before intervention 1 (Medical Interview) 6.06 1.05 0.00NS 6.22 0.81 0.99 NS
Post-test after intervention 1 6.06 0.90 6.32 0.86
Pre-test before intervention 2 (Humanitude) 6.04 1.08 3.49*** 6.16 1.07 1.17 NS
Post-test after intervention 2 6.34 0.88 6.29 0.85
Year 5 6.00 1.16   6.03 1.00  
Year 6 6.03 1.11   6.08 0.97  
  1. ***p < 0.001, NS: not significant