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Table 3 Pairwise comparisons of wire-bending scores with the implementation of formative assessment in the LD and FC cohorts

From: The effect of live demonstration and flipped classroom with continuous formative assessment on dental students’ orthodontic wire-bending performance

Type of Wire Live demonstration cohort Flipped classroom cohort
Mean score Difference ± SD Sig. b Mean score Difference ± SD Sig. b
Adams Clasp Buccal canine retractor -4.00 ± 0.43* 0.00# -4.00 ± 0.43* 0.00#
Palatal finger spring -4.75 ± 0.48* 0.00# -4.75 ± 0.48* 0.00#
Southend clasp -1.75 ± 0.55 0.07 -1.75 ± 0.55 0.07
Z-spring -2.96 ± 0.51* 0.00# -2.96 ± 0.51* 0.00#
Hawley Labial bow -4.68 ± 0.45* 0.00# -4.68 ± 0.45* 0.00#
Buccal canine retractor Adams Clasp 4.00 ± *0.43 0.00# 4.00 ± 0.43* 0.00#
Palatal finger spring -0.75 ± 0.24 0.19 -0.75 ± 0.24 0.10
Southend clasp 2.25 ± 0.40* 0.00# 2.25 ± 0.40* 0.00#
Z-spring 1.04 ± 0.40 0.26 1.04 ± 0.40 0.26
Hawley Labial bow -0.68 ± 0.36 1.00 -0.68 ± 0.36 1.00
Palatal finger spring Adams Clasp 4.75 ± 0.48 * 0.00# 4.75 ± 0.48* 0.00#
Buccal canine retractor 0.75 ± 0.24 0.10 0.75 ± 0.24 0.10
Southend clasp 3.00 ± 0.42* 0.00# 3.00 ± 0.42* 0.00#
Z-spring 1.79 ± 0.45* 0.01# 1.79 ± 0.45* 0.01#
Hawley Labial bow 0.07 ± 0.40 1.00 0.07 ± 0.40 1.00
Southend clasp Adams Clasp 1.75 ± 0.55 0.07 1.75 ± 0.55 0.07
Buccal canine retractor -2.25 ± 0.40* 0.00# -2.25 ± 0.40* 0.00#
Palatal finger spring -3.00 ± 0.42* 0.00# -3.00 ± 0.42* 0.00#
Z-spring -1.21 ± 0.47 0.27 -1.21 ± 0.47 0.27
Hawley Labial bow -2.93 ± 0.24* 0.00# -2.93 ± 0.24* 0.00#
Z-spring Adams Clasp 2.96 ± 0.51* 0.00# 2.96 ± 0.51* 0.00#
Buccal canine retractor -1.04 ± 0.40 0.26 -1.04 ± 0.40 0.26
Palatal finger spring -1.79 ± 0.45* 0.01# -1.79 ± 0.45* 0.01#
Southend clasp 1.21 ± 0.47 0.27 1.21 ± 0.47 0.27
Hawley Labial bow -1.72 ± 0.47* 0.02# -1.72 ± 0.45* 0.02#
Hawley Labial bow Adams Clasp 4.68 ± 0.45* 0.00# 4.68 ± 0.45* 0.00#
Buccal canine retractor 0.68 ± 0.31 1.00 0.68 ± 0.36 1.00
Palatal finger spring -0.07 ± 0.40 1.00 -0.07 ± 0.40 1.00
Southend clasp 2.93 ± 0.24* 0.00# 2.93 ± 0.24* 0.00#
Z-spring 1.72 ± 0.45* 0.02# 1.72 ± 0.45* 0.02#
  1. Based on estimated marginal means
  2. *Significant difference
  3. b. Adjustment for multiple comparisons: Bonferroni
  4. #P < 0.01 (0.05/5)