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Table 1 PICOS, Inclusion Criteria and Exclusion Criteria Applied to Database Search

From: A systematic scoping review of approaches to teaching and assessing empathy in medicine

  Inclusion Exclusion
Population • Doctors/Physicians
• Medical Students
• Allied health specialties such as Pharmacy, Dietetics, Chiropractic, Midwifery, Podiatry, Speech Therapy, Occupational and Physiotherapy
• Non-medical specialties such as Clinical and Translational Science, Alternative and Traditional Medicine, Veterinary, Dentistry
Intervention • Interventions (with specific outcomes i.e. qualitative/quantitative) • Sympathy
• Self-compassion
• Compassion
• If empathy is only minor component of scale/assessment (eg, surveys)
• Transference/Countertransference
• Psychotherapy
Comparison NA NA
Outcomes • Impact of curricula on participants, patients, or host organisation NA
Study Design • All study designs and article types were included:
- Mixed methods research, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and descriptive papers
- Grey Literature / electronic and print information not controlled by commercial publishing
- Case reports and series, ideas, editorials, conference abstracts, and perspectives
• Non-English articles without English translations