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Table 1 Items on the original administration of the Attitudes Toward Implicit Bias Instrument after expert consensus through modified Delphi-technique, 2015–2018

From: Validity evidence for a novel instrument assessing medical student attitudes toward instruction in implicit bias recognition and management

1. (When I make an assumption about someone different than me, the person overreacts.)
2. Individuals carry assumptions and opinions in their subconscious (in the form of implicit bias) that they are not aware of.
3. Racial and ethnic minority groups are often treated in subtly disrespectful ways.
4. Learning about implicit bias is as important to the practice of medicine as learning about basic science.
5. It is important to me to learn how to recognize when one of my own implicit biases is activated.
6. I am able to define implicit bias in my own words.
7. The personal implicit biases that other students hold about racial and/or ethnic minorities may affect the quality of care they provide to patients.
8. I worry about saying the wrong thing during discussions about racial and ethnic implicit bias.
9. Implicit bias recognition and management is a competency students should master before attaining their medical degree
10. I have made assumptions about racial and/or ethnic minorities that have proven to be incorrect
11. I worry that my actions won’t match my values when I interact with patients who are racially or ethnically different than me.
12. (The personal implicit biases that I myself hold about racial and/or ethnic minorities may affect the quality of care I provide to patients.)
13. Racism is only an issue of the past.
14. It is important to me to learn how to minimize the effects my implicit biases may have on my clinical decision-making.
15. (Medical schools have a responsibility to help students become aware of their biases and their potential impact on clinical decision making.)
16. Learning about implicit bias is as important to the practice of medicine as learning about patient-physician communication skills.
17. When I have an exam looming I don’t want to waste time learning about implicit bias.
18. I have the skills to address my own implicit biases that come up in the course of delivering care.
19. An individual’s implicit bias can affect her/his/their behavior.
20. (Learning about implicit bias is as important to the practice of medicine as learning about clinical reasoning.)
21. The assumptions I make about racial and/or ethnic minorities may affect the way I treat them
22. It is important to discuss race, ethnicity, and culture during medical school.
23. (Implicit bias class discussions should allow for all opinions to be expressed)
24. (The US health care system provides fair and equitable care to all populations, regardless of their race, ethnicity and/or immigration status)
25. (The personal implicit biases physicians hold about racial and/or ethnic minorities may affect the quality of care they provide to patients.)
26. (I feel comfortable during discussions about race and ethnicity.)
27. (If a test were to find that I subconsciously favor one racial or ethnic group over another, I would question the validity of the test)
  1. Note: Items in parentheses were subsequently removed because of poor item statistics or low construct loadings