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Table 1 Literature concerning implicit bias and clinical decision making

From: Physician gender as a source of implicit bias affecting clinical decision-making processes: a scoping review

  Study Author(s) Study Design Study Participants Specialty/Focus Relevant Finding
Clinical Qualities Amoli et al. 2016 [20] Survey N = 503 Pediatric Orthopedics Changes in demographic make-up of pediatric orthopedics indicate higher hiring rate for females.
Hemphill et al. 2020 [34] Perspective n/a Medical Education Physicians may acquire gender-based implicit biases through educational and formative experiences.
Ferguson et al. 2018 [28] Prospective validation N = 247 Cardio−/Thoracic surgeons Outcomes of clinical vignettes do not show implicit bias.
Furnas et al. 2018 [40] Survey N = 757 Plastic surgeons Women demonstrated a higher perception of gender concordance with their patients.
Greene et al. 2018 [41] Survey N = 915 Clinical Preferences Patients may have an implicit bias based solely on name when selecting a physician.
Diagnosis of Disease Berthold et al. 2008 [42] Cross-sectional N = 51,053 GPs/Internists Patients of female physicians received higher quality of care for Diabetes Mellitus Type II.
Bouck et al. 2018 [26] Cohort N = 2394 GPs Male physicians order more low-value tests than female physicians.
Hamberg et al. 2004 [43] Case Description N = 289 Gastrointestinal Specialists Physicians utilize different gender cues during the clinical work-up and diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease.
Bernardes et al. 2013 [44] Between Subjects N = 310 GPs Physician-held stereotypes to gender may influence the diagnosis and treatment of low-back pain.
Treatment Daugherty et al. 2017 [32] Prospective validation N = 503 Cardiologists Female physicians show lower gendered implicit bias than males.
Hirsh et al. 2014 [35] Analog Design (simulation) N = 98 GPs Provider sex is an influence on the selection of treatment option.
Sabin et al. 2009 [45] Survey N = 2535 Medical Doctors Only Black female physicians showed no implicit bias towards male or female patients.
Schwartz et al. 2003 [46] Survey N = 289 Obesity experts Female physicians were more likely to associate the word “fat” with bad, lazy, and stupid but not “worthless”.
Outcomes Chapman et al. 2013 [5] Perspective n/a Systematic review of literature Implicit bias within physicians leads to perpetuating health care disparities.
Tsugawa et al. 2017 [27] Retrospective Analysis N = 1,583,028 (episodes of care) Internists Female internists treat elderly hospitalized patients in a manner that lowers 30-day readmission rates and decreases hospital-related death.
  1. GPs, General Practitioners