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Table 3 Differences in learning outcome variables between the two groups

From: Impact of blended learning on learning outcomes in the public healthcare education course: a review of flipped classroom with team-based learning

Variables Blended learning Traditional lecture p a Source F P b
Mean (SD) Mean (SD)
Knowledge Pretest 18.63 (3.76) 19.57 (3.72) .103 Group 4.48 .036
Posttest 25.45 (2.56) 24.34 (3.42)   Time 464.30 <.001
     GroupxTime 14.45 <.001
Problem-solving ability Pretest 3.41 (0.24) 3.43 (0.23) .638 Group 185.04 <.001
Posttest 4.54 (0.30) 3.67 (0.26)   Time 783.56 <.001
     GroupxTime 322.69 <.001
Learning satisfaction Pretest 2.69 (0.39) 2.68 (0.35) .910 Group 33.41 <.001
Posttest 3.98 (0.53) 3.32 (0.72)   Time 311.78 <.001
     GroupxTime 36.34 <.001
  1. Blended learning: flipped classroom with team-based learning; SD Standard deviation. a Score from the independent t-test. b Score from the repeated measures ANOVA