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Table 1 Summary of tools identified in the articles reviewed (n = 8)

From: Pedagogical foundations of cybercivility in health professions education: a scoping review

Author(s) (Year) Purpose Details Contribution to the body of knowledge in cybercivility Value in cybercivility curriculum
Bork (2014) [28] To explore male nursing students’ perceptions of caring and uncaring behaviors by online nursing faculty, and of their interpretation and evaluation of behaviors identified in the study. Watson’s transpersonal caring theory [35] has been used to describe a caring student-teacher relationship that enables the student to find meaning and wholeness to promote growth in nursing education. The 10 Caritas (carative factors):
1. Form a humanistic value system
2. Provide faith and hope
3. Develop self-awareness
4. Build relationships based on care and support
5. Promote and accept expression of feelings
6. Use the art of healing and caring with decision making and problem solving
7. Share genuine experiences of teaching and learning
8. Provide support and protection in multiple domains
9. Support basic human needs
10. Broaden an understanding of existential and phenomenological dimensions of self
Carative factor 3 (developing self-awareness about self and others) can help faculty to understand how to demonstrate caring in the online environment.
Carative factor 4 (building relationship-based care and support) can guide faculty in building a supportive student relationship through facilitating an understanding of students’ unique needs.
Carative factor 7 (sharing teaching and learning experiences) can inform educators of how gender impacts students’ perception of caring behaviors.
This tool can be used to provide guidelines around words, actions, and behaviors that are caring versus uncaring in an online environment. This research specifically focused on the student-teacher relationship.
There is a need to intentionally include caring strategies by faculty in an online learning environment.
Cain (2017) [30] To provide structure for the Incivility Online Learning Environment (IOLE) survey tests underlying factor structure in the faculty behavior items of the IOLE. Andersson and Pearson’s theory of workplace incivility [36] defines incivility as rude or discourteous behaviors that disregard others and violate a universal workplace norm for respect. Per Clark et al.’s conceptualization of incivility in nursing education [37], uncivil behaviors result in physiological or psychological distress and can result in threatening situations.
Clark’s IOLE survey [5] lists specific behaviors (actions or speech) that interfere with teaching and learning.
Andersson and Pearson’s theory [36] posits that low-intensity deviant behaviors should not be undermined as they could be more damaging to individuals than a single act of high-intensity behavior. Clark’s incivility in nursing education [37] guided the design of an instrument measuring incivility in an online learning environment. Understanding what online behaviors students perceive as uncivil is important when creating a culture of civility in an online learning environment.
Clark’s (2009) theory was used to determine the survey and the identification of two factors of uncivil faculty behavior factors, which the author denotes can lead to policy and faculty education.
These theories provide a tool for viewing uncivil behaviors in an online classroom and may help educators.
De Gagne et al. (2018) [9] To provide guidance for understanding cybercivility and cyberincivility experiences. Postman’s theory of media ecology [38]: ethics with framework for evaluation of media environment, founded on an inquiry of how online communication affects human perceptions, understanding, feelings, and values by looking into the structure, content, and impact on social media users and their behavior.
Beauchamp & Childress’s Principlism [39]: four principles including autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice
The media ecology theory offers a “humanistic perspective” on online misbehavior, thus facilitating behavioral and social management in the context of cyberspace.
The four principles of principlism (i.e., autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice) have been used to teach ethical issues across curricula in health professions education and can serve as a powerful action guide for addressing student behaviors that may contribute to incivility.
The media ecology theory can guide development of relevant questions and of educational practice innovations for this environment.
The four principles of principlism can be used to teach ethical issues across curricula in health professions education and can serve as a powerful action guide for addressing student behaviors that may contribute to incivility.
Hart & Morgan (2010) [32] To guide faculty in institutionalizing academic integrity Gallant and Drinan’s 4-stage model [42] for institutionalization of academic integrity:
stage 1 = recognition
stage 2 = response generation
stage 3 = response implementation
stage 4 = institutionalization
The study design represents Stage 2 of this model.
Authors indicated that faculty had a dialogue about perceived differences in online and traditional classrooms (stage 1) and made a commitment to explore academic integrity in the two programs (stage 2). All nursing programs should clearly delineate expectations for academic integrity for students in an online learning environment. Procedures to increase awareness of academic integrity policies should be put in place.
Morgan & Hart (2013) [33] To develop an intervention involving faculty-facilitated discussion about academic integrity during the first week of class via an online discussion forum Gallant and Drinan’s 4-stage model [42] for institutionalization of academic integrity:
stage 1 = recognition
stage 2 = response generation
stage 3 = response implementation
stage 4 = institutionalization
Authors developed an intervention that entailed encouraging students’ thoughts about the importance of academic integrity among themselves and with faculty. Students were instructed to read the testing policy statement and were required to acknowledge their understanding of its information prior to examinations. Authors recommend that academic integrity become part of a culture. Academic integrity includes plagiarism, appropriate and inappropriate student collaboration, fabrication of information, and examination security. Their tool supported this concept.
Rieck & Crouch (2007) [29] To guide a study design to explore students’ perspectives on connectiveness and civility in online nursing to increase effectiveness in online learning Salmon’s 5-stage model of online learning [40]: access and technology competence, development of online interpersonal skills, knowledge construction, student achievement of courteous interactions, and communication
Learner centered educational theory [41] is based on interpersonal competence and suggests that knowledge is built through social interaction and respect for diversity.
Authors emphasized the importance of online socialization in discussions, chats, emails, and blogs, or wikis. The two strategic tools are of value to educators when creating a set of online classroom expectations, not only for students but for faculty (i.e., guidelines for civil communication apply to both students and faculty). It is important to provide prompt and meaningful feedback and post guidelines for civil communication and to provide examples.
Skrabal (2017) [34] To provide guidance on sharing information on social media and to determine whether ethical development influences the use of social media among nursing students Petronio’s communication privacy management theory (CPM) [44] with 5 suppositions:
•Individuals have control over own information
•Boundaries are created between private and public information
•Information is owned or co-owned
•Rules are used in information disclosure
•Dialectical (tensions)
Kohlberg’s moral development theory [45]
•Pre-conventional morality: response to rules and labels
•Conventional morality: conforms to norms and rules of a group such as family
•Post-conventional morality: accepted societies rules and norms
CPM has an impact on how social media is used by students on e-professionalism, including establishment of boundaries and the rules that govern boundaries.
In line with Kohlberg’s theory, ethical reasoning is an important aspect of communication and ethical behavior as well as of e-professionalism.
Nursing students use rules to manage e-professionalism consistent with CPM and ethical reasoning.
Author notes that while students like the rules, rule-based education does not work. CPM and ethical reasoning can guide concept-based education using current guidelines.
Smith (2010) [31] To guide evaluation of school’s handling of academic dishonesty issues, for instrument development, and to establish the relationship between academic dishonesty and professional dishonesty. Theory of planned behavior (Beliefs influence behavior) [43]
Concepts:
•Behavioral belief
•Normative beliefs
•Control beliefs
•Actual behavioral control
•Behavioral intention
The theory was used to develop an instrument which can be used to understand academic and professional dishonesty. Framework can also be used to develop and test interventions. Provided the framework for the development of the PAPIS (Perceptions of Academic and Professional Integrity Survey) The author points out that dishonest behaviors seem to start during the student experience.