Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary statistics for moderators related to examination scores

From: The effectiveness of virtual reality-based technology on anatomy teaching: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

SubgroupnSMD95% CIp valueI2
region
 USA71.140.56, 1.720.0079.8%
 others80.03−0.57, 0.630.9289.6%
learners
 medical students120.510.02, 1.010.0489.6%
 residents30.67−0.45, 1.790.2477.8%
course
 skeletal anatomy6−0.07−0.95, 0.810.8891.4%
 neuroanatomy40.52−0.04, 1.100.0784.9%
 others51.340.52, 2.140.0087.8%
intervention
 3D interactive models80.640.47, 0.810.0082.5%
 VR7−0.09−0.37, 0.180.5089.2%
comparator
 traditional methords50.810.15, 1.470.0282.6%
 other digital methods100.35−0.25, 0.950.2590.2%
duration
 <  1 day100.350.18, 0.520.0089.4%
 ≥1 day50.710.42, 1.100.0084.4%