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Table 3 Description of the main features of the e-learning and chatbot

From: Developing a digital training tool to support oncologists in the skill of information-provision: a user centred approach

1: Entry testParticipants had to perform an ‘entry-test’ [9] comprising the video-recording of a consultation with one of their own patients [14]. This video-recording had to be sent to peers, who provided immediate feedback [15]. This task had to be performed in the e-learning module as well as Chatbot.
2. PersonalizationIn the e-learning; the content and some assignments could be tailored to participants’ learning needs (e.g. to self-select a module [4], to obtain access to supportive literature [7]). Moreover, the chatbot offered additional choices to personalize the training experience such as whether the participant preferred to receive instructional material as text or video [10], or how much time the participant wanted to spend on this specific session.
3. Information presentationThe content of the instructional material was the same in both the e-learning and chatbot and comprised brief text, an animation and video fragments of consultations [7, 10, 11]. However, in the Chatbot this material was presented more interactive, whereas in the e-learning it was presented more static (scrolling and clicking).
4. AssignmentsThe e-learning contained assignments such as reviewing video-recorded consultations (their own or of colleagues) and leaving a verbal message in response to an utterance of a videotaped patient [12]. The chatbot only contained the assignment to leave a verbal message (to not to have too many repetitive tasks during the testing session).
5. ReminderIn the e-learning, an email appeared to remind the participant of a personal learning goal [18]. The chatbot provided a notification on the participants cell phone, as a reminder.
6. Expert coachingThe e-learning module contained a menu-option facilitating consultation with a communication expert [21]. In de chatbot module, the option was offered to consult a communication expert for example after having received a too low grade for an assignment.
  1. aThe numbers in brackets refer to the requirements described in Table 2