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Table 3 Descriptive statistics of each H-PEPSS-CV item (n = 732)

From: Self-reported confidence in patient safety competencies among Chinese nursing students: a multi-site cross-sectional survey

Patient safety areasSettingMean (SD)Effect sizePaired t-test (t and p value)Agree/strongly agree
N%χ2 2-tail p value
T1 Safe clinical practice in generalClassroom3.76(0.82)−0.07t = −3.7951069.70χ2 = 8.68
Clinical3.87(0.77)p = 0.0056076.50p = 0.00
T2 Hand hygieneClassroom4.00(0.68)−0.07t = − 3.7960782.90χ2 = 0.99
Clinical4.10(0.70)p = 0.0062184.90p = 0.32
T3 Infection controlClassroom4.28(0.81)0.27t = 14.4965789.80χ2 = 57.45
Clinical3.84(0.78)p = 0.0054674.60p = 0.00
T4 Safe medication practicesClassroom4.40(0.69)0.21t = 10.7267492.10χ2 = 16.99
Clinical4.10(0.69)p = 0.0062485.30p = 0.00
T5 The importance of having a questioning attitude and speaking up when you see things that may be unsafeClassroom3.80(0.80)−0.04t = −2.1951570.40χ2 = 1.79
Clinical3.86(0.79)p = 0.0353873.50p = 0.18
T6 The importance of a supportive environment that encourages patients and providers to speak up when they have safety concernsClassroom3.99(0.76)−0.05t = −2.7558079.30χ2 = 4.04
Clinical4.07(0.74)p = 0.0161083.40p = 0.04
T7 The nature of systems and system failures and their role in adverse eventsClassroom3.95(0.79)0.04t = 1.9057778.80χ2 = 3.67
Clinical3.88(1.06)p = 0.0654674.60p = 0.06
T8 Managing inter-professional conflictClassroom4.18(0.71)0.09t = 5.1364187.60χ2 = 4.07
Clinical4.05(0.69)p = 0.0061483.90p = 0.04
T9 Sharing authority, leadership and decision-makingClassroom3.95(0.78)0.11t = 6.1257278.20χ2 = 14.46
Clinical3.78(0.78)p = 0.0050869.40p = 0.00
T10 Encouraging team members to speak up, question, challenge, advocate, and be accountable as appropriate to address safety issuesClassroom4.18(0.70)0.16t = 9.0964187.60χ2 = 27.81
Clinical3.95(0.73)p = 0.0056477.10p = 0.00
T11 Enhancing patient safety through clear and consistent communication with patientsClassroom3.88(0.82)0.15t = 8.8554774.70χ2 = 40.11
Clinical3.63(0.82)p = 0.0043359.10p = 0.00
T12 Enhancing patient safety through effective communication with other healthcare providersClassroom4.07(0.76)0.19t = 10.1159681.40χ2 = 50.19
Clinical3.77(0.80)p = 0.0047665.00p = 0.00
T13 Effective verbal and nonverbal communication abilities to prevent adverse eventsClassroom3.80(0.82)−0.06t = −3.6250368.70χ2 = 16.69
Clinical3.90(0.73)p = 0.0057278.10p = 0.00
T14 Recognizing routine situations in which safety problems may ariseClassroom3.98(0.75)−0.08t = −4.2356477.10χ2 = 17.87
Clinical4.10(0.70)p = 0.0062785.60p = 0.00
T15 Identifying and implementing safety solutionsClassroom3.68(0.81)−0.12t = −6.3346363.30χ2 = 24.85
Clinical3.86(0.74)p = 0.0055175.30p = 0.00
T16 Anticipating and managing high risk situationsClassroom3.80(0.79)−0.17t = −8.8149667.80χ2 = 48.05
Clinical4.05(0.69)p = 0.0061083.40p = 0.00
T17 The role of human factors, such as fatigue, which effect patient safetyClassroom3.70(0.81)−0.07t = −3.8646563.50χ2 = 12.84
Clinical3.81(0.77)p = 0.0052972.30p = 0.00
T18 The role of environmental factors such as work flow, ergonomics and resources, which effect patient safetyClassroom3.86(0.76)−0.12t = −6.3853473.0χ2 = 18.19
Clinical4.03(0.69)p = 0.0060282.30p = 0.00
T19 Recognizing an adverse event or close callClassroom3.84(0.77)0.01t = 0.3754173.90χ2 = 0.06
Clinical3.83(0.75)p = 0.7154574.50p = 0.81
T20 Reducing harm by addressing immediate risks for patients and others involvedClassroom3.96(0.75)−0.04t = −2.4857578.50χ2 = 4.80
Clinical4.02(0.68)p = 0.0160883.10p = 0.03
  1. Note. H-PEPSS-CV: the Chinese version of the Health professional education in patient safety survey