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Table 2 Evidence-based medicine knowledge, awareness, and attitudes; numbers (percentage) reflect the results only for data from closed questions

From: Evidence-based medicine self-assessment, knowledge, and integration into daily practice: a survey among Romanian physicians and comparison between trainees and specialists

ItemTrainees
(n = 170)
Specialists
(n = 80)
p-value
(A01) The concept of “evidence-based medicine”? a  0.09
 I have heard of it, but I do not know what it means …17 (10.0)2 (2.5) 
 I know, I understand…, I am not using it…27 (15.9)10 (12.5) 
 I know, I understand…, I am using it…125 (73.5)68 (85.0) 
 I have never heard of it1 (0.6)0 (0.00) 
(A02) Source of information on EBM (multiple answers allowed)b
 Teachers143 (84.1)51 (63.8)0.0004
 Physicians49 (28.8)30 (37.5)0.17
 Colleagues18 (10.6)11 (13.8)0.46
 Nowhere2 (1.2)0 (0.00)0.33
(A03) No. of correctly identified definitions c133 (78.2)56 (70.0)0.16
(A04) Uppermost in the hierarchy of evidence b
 Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses11 (6.5)3 (3.8)0.39
 Systematic reviews3 (1.8)2 (2.5)0.71
 Meta-analyses13 (7.6)9 (11.3)0.34
 Randomized controlled trials (RCT)12 (7.1)9 (11.3)0.27
 Systematic reviews, Meta-analyses, RCT19 (11.2)7 (8.8)0.05
(A05) Lowest in the hierarchy of evidence b
 In vitro research6 (3.5)1 (1.3)0.33
 Animal study1 (0.6)1 (1.3)0.57
 Idea, editorial, or expert opinions12 (7.1)3 (3.8)0.31
 An animal research, in vitro research5 (2.9)1 (1.3)0.44
 Idea, editorial, review or expert opinions, animal research, in vitro research10 (5.9)0 (0.0)0.03
(A06) Level of evidence considered when reading literature a  0.21
 Always70 (41.2)42 (52.5) 
 Sometimes72 (42.4)31 (38.8) 
 Never, but I know this classification5 (2.9)0 (0.0) 
 I have ignored this classification14 (8.2)6 (7.5) 
 I have never heard of it9 (5.3)1 (1.3) 
(A07) Strength of evidence a  0.34
 Yes, always56 (32.9)34 (42.5) 
 Sometimes77 (45.3)36 (45.0) 
 Never, but I know this classification6 (3.5)1 (1.3) 
 I have ignored this classification9 (5.3)1 (1.3) 
 I have never heard of it22 (12.9)8 (10.0) 
(A08) Continuing medical education: reading b
 Online free medical articles135 (79.4)64 (80.0)0.91
 Online paid medical articles58 (34.1)38 (47.5)0.04
 Printed free medical articles68 (40.0)24 (30.0)0.13
 Printed paid medical articles28 (16.5)17 (21.3)0.36
 Medical articles available on apps89 (52.4)35 (43.8)0.21
(A11) Reading scientific articles: preferences a  0.28
 Original articles80 (47.1)38 (47.5) 
 Meta-analyses49 (28.8)18 (22.5) 
 Systematic reviews31 (18.2)22 (27.5) 
 I do not know the difference5 (2.9)0 (0.0) 
 I do not read articles or journals; I prefer books5 (2.9)2 (2.5) 
(A12) The use of EBM b
 Medical decisions166 (97.6)79 (98.8)0.53
 To know what is new in the medical field104 (61.2)34 (42.5)0.01
 To know the structure of a scientific paper109 (64.1)36 (45.0)0.004
 I have not yet understood the usefulness of EBM3 (1.8)0 (0.0)0.23
 I do not consider EMB in current practice0 (0.38)1 (1.3)0.41
  1. a Fisher’s exact test; b Z-test for proportions; cChi-square test