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Table 1 Overview of commonly used digital learning design concepts

From: Digital learning designs in physiotherapy education: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Blended learning Distance learning
Blended learning “is the thoughtful integration of classroom face-to-face learning experiences with online learning experiences. There is considerable intuitive appeal to the concept of integrating the strengths of synchronous (face-to-face) and asynchronous (flexible-time) learning activities [19] (p. 96). Distance learning is a “planned learning that normally occurs in a different place from teaching and as a result requires special techniques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements [20] (p. 2).
Flipped classroom model In a flipped classroom, “the information transmission component of a traditional face-to-face lecture (‘traditional lecture’) is moved out of class and the learning in-class are active, collaborative tasks. Students prepare for class by engaging with resources that cover what would have been in a traditional lecture. After class they follow up and consolidate their knowledge” [21] (p. 1) E-learning courses a structured course delivered electronically with different elements: live or pre-recorded lecture content, video, quizzes, simulations, games, activities, and other interactive elements. E-learning can also be facilitated as virtual classrooms - a type of online learning in which live interaction between instructors and participants take place synchronous.
Blended learning on and off campus An example of blended learning design is where the students, for example, gain access to digital learning resources prior to in-class teaching and/or after classroom teaching, but the teaching is traditionally offered. Another example is that the learning activities in the classroom teaching are given and answered through digital learning technology and software. Mobile learning (m-learning) Variant of e-learning; teaching takes place via mobile equipment, e.g. mobile smart phones. M-learning is “the processes of coming to know through conversations across multiple contexts among people and personal interactive technologies” [22] (p. 225)
Hybrid Learning Educational model where one student group follows the course on campus and simultaneously individuals follow the course remotely through digital technology. Hybrid learning can combine synchronous learning with asynchronous learning elements like e.g. online forums, discussion boards. Hybrid classrooms vary widely according to the subject matter taught and the needs of specific groups of learners. Remote/at-home learning A course designed to be delivered online, not intended to meet in-person, students intended not to work on assignments in the same space, and do not attend lectures or classes virtually with video or audio communication to participate.
Massive open online courses (MOOC) “A massive open online course is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web” [23], (p. 442). “MOOC integrates the connectivity of social networking, the facilitation of an acknowledged expert in a field of study, and a collection of freely accessible online resources. The learners are typically adults and self-organize their participation according to learning goals, prior knowledge and skills, and common interests” [24] (p. 4)