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Table 1 Goodness-of-fit indices used to signify model fit

From: Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI): a cross-validation study in Malaysian medical schools

Name of category Name of index Level of acceptance
Absolute fita Root Mean Square of Error Approximation (RMSEA) < 0.08 [43]
Goodness-of-fit Index (GFI) > 0.9 [44]
Incremental fitb Comparative Fit Index (CFI) > 0.9 [44]
Tucker–Lewis Index (TLI) > 0.9 [45]
Normed Fit Index (NFI) > 0.9 [46]
Parsimonious fitc Chi Square/Degree of Freedom (Chisq/df) < 5 [47])
  1. aAbsolute fit: Measures overall goodness-of-fit for the structural and measurement models collectively. This type of measure does not make any comparison to a specified null model (incremental fit measure) or adjust for the number of parameters in the estimated model (parsimonious fit measure)
  2. bIncremental fit: Measures goodness-of-fit that compares the current model to a specified “null” (independent) model to determine the degree of improvement over the null model
  3. cParsimonious fit: Measures goodness-of-fit representing the degree of model fit per estimated coefficient. This measure attempts to correct for any “overfitting” of the model and evaluates the parsimony of the model compared to the goodness-of-fit