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Table 1 Overview of EPAs used in the questionnaire

From: What can we expect from medical graduates? Empirical survey on the performance of Core EPAs in the first days of residency


Terms used in the manuscript

EPA descriptions used in the questionnaire

Core EPAs

History, physical and synthesis

Take a medical history, perform a physical examination and summarize the results in a structured manner (typical presentation, common disease pattern)

Diagnostic plan

Compile a diagnostic plan and initiate implementation (typical presentation, common disease pattern, typical course of disease; tiered diagnostics)

Interpret test results

Interpret test results and initiate further steps (common diagnostic methods)

Treatment plan

Compile a treatment plan and initiate implementation (common disease pattern, typical course of disease)

Obtain Informed consent

Seek consent for medical procedures and diagnostics (inform patient about course, benefits, risks and alternatives)

Inform and advise a patient

Inform and advise patients (common consolations, reasons and diseases)

Present patient history

Present a patient history (structured; according to the target audience and situational requirements)

Patient handover

Give or receive a patient handover (structured; according to the target audience and situational requirements)

Patient report

Write and transmit a patient report (structured; transmit oneself or delegate)

Act in emergency situations

Recognize an emergency situation and act upon it (estimate the degree of severity, provide on-the-spot aid, call for help)

Evidence-based case presentation

Undertake an evidence-based patient case and initiate patient-specific implementation

Core Procedures

Venous blood sampling

Venous blood sampling

Capillary blood sampling

Capillary blood sampling

Peripheral catheter

Inserting a peripheral catheter

Blood culture

Taking a blood culture

Taking a smear

Taking a smear (oral, nasal, wound, anal, urogenital)

Intracutaneous injection

Giving an intracutaneous injection

Subcutaneous injection

Giving a subcutaneous injection

Intramuscular injection

Giving an intramuscular injection


Giving an infusion

Nasogastric tube

Placing a nasogastric tube


Taking an ECG


Putting on or changing a bandage


Writing a prescription

Advanced EPAs

Complete patient admission

Manage an in-patient admission

Ward round

Conduct a ward round in the hospital

Complete patient discharge

Manage an in-patient discharge

Weekend ward round

Conduct a weekend ward round in the hospital

Late/night shift

Take a late/night shift (supervising physician available via telephone)