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Table 5 Suggestions of actions to be taken by host organisation

From: A systematic scoping review of ethical issues in mentoring in medical schools

Process of mentorship Concrete actions to be taken by host organisation Purpose of action
Recruitment stage • Establish clear goals of the mentoring process
• Set out the mentoring approach to be used, and support mechanism and assessment programs that will be applied
• Ensure that clear recruitment and entrance requirements are established
• Expand pool of potential mentors for a suitable mentor-mentee ratio and to increase the intake of female mentors and mentors from different ethnic groups and cultures [33, 73]
• To avail mentoring opportunities to students [57]
• To help recruit mentees and mentors with appropriate goals and desired characteristics
• To help align expectations of the mentoring program [1, 61]
Matching and Training process • Aim to provide a personalised and complementary mentorship [58, 61]
• Provide mentees and mentors with a chance to meet and discuss their individual goals, values, timelines, interests, working styles and availabilities in pre-mentoring meetings before the mentoring relationship begins [61]
• Provide mentees and mentors with a ‘two week’ trial period to confirm that they intend to proceed with the mentoring relationship [61]
• Training sessions to be mandatory and longitudinal for all mentors and mentees [33, 61]
• Establish a Code of Practice – this includes codes of conduct, standards of practice, professional codes of practice and institutional expectations and guidelines [3, 81]
• To help mentees find the right mentoring relationship and to inform them of boundaries to abide by [41, 73]
• To convey expectations of the mentoring program and to ensure awareness of the roles and responsibilities of the mentor [23]
• To ensure that mentors and mentees gain skills required to maintain a healthy mentoring relationship
• To offer a chance to gather feedback on mentoring progress, support and the program as a whole [61]
• To ensure that mentors and mentees are supported throughout their mentoring journey [23]
• To provide clear guidance for mentors and mentees on Codes of Practice, how it will be policed and ramifications of minor breaches or severe violations
Mentoring process • Schedule regular meetings between all stakeholders [45, 55]
• Provide effective communication platforms [54]
• Encourage open and frank discussions, exchange of ideas and feedback which would the facilitate the building of successful mentoring relationships [43]
• Provide recognition of contributions of mentors and mentees such as through certification or awards [55, 72]
• Access to longitudinal administrative and financial support
• To provide a nurturing mentoring environment
• To ensure that there are opportunities for feedback, support and honest conversations
• To ensure a consistent mentoring approach
• To ensure that mentors are aware of ways they may benefit personally, professionally and be formally recognised for their contributions so that they may remain incentivized and committed to the mentoring program and their objectives [55, 72]
• To provide encouragement and support for mentorship; ensuring balance between individual’s goals and interests with pressures and expectations
Evaluation of mentorship • Set up a robust and structured assessment program [51] through the selection of assessment methods and domains that are context-, mentee- and mentor-specific. Assessment may also be anonymous and should be confidential and non-threatening to encourage honesty from mentees and mentors
• Longitudinal evaluation of the mentorship through feedback mechanisms in assessing outcomes of mentorship [60]
• If issues surface, introduce remediation courses for mentors and mentees so as to repair the mentoring relationship and to prevent further ethical breaches or violations [75]
• To ensure that the mentoring approach employed is well articulated and adhered to
• To address ethical issues in mentorship such as lapses in professionalism, conduct, collaborative efforts, motivation and widening power differentials in a timely manner
• To address issues in the mentor-mentee relationship, such as misalignment of expectations, poor recruitment and training, inadequate communication skills, insight, support and training