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Table 4 Association between conventional method versus modified method and clinical outcomes with controlling the factors by GEE

From: Modified paramedian versus conventional paramedian technique in the residency training: an observational study

  OR(95%CI) p value
Spinal Group
Attempt Number
 1 1  
 2–4 and failure 5.763 (4.911–6.763) < 0.001
Complications
 None 1  
 Yes 0.848 (0.190–3.783) 0.829
Epidural group
Attempt Number
 1 1  
 2–4 and failure 13.739 (11.298–16.709) < 0.001
Implant error
 None 1  
 D 5.766 (3.693–9.002) < 0.001
 P 6.906 (4.482–10.639) < 0.001
 IV 15.251 (3.618–64.298) < 0.001
Complications
 None 1  
 Yes 13.663 (2.143–87.098) 0.006
Combined group
Attempt Number
 1 1  
 2–4 and failure 5.354 (3.973–7.214) < 0.001
Implant error
 None 1  
 D 12.744 (3.578–45.392) < 0.001
 P 11.616 (7.549–17.873) < 0.001
IV 12.801 (3.944–41.547) < 0.001
Complications
 None 1  
 Yes 7.131 (1.804–28.187) 0.005
  1. Abbreviations: OR Odd ratio; D difficulty at threading; P dura puncture, IV intravascular catheterization