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Table 5 Positive barriers responses among students, as well as overall barriers score and those stratified by different students’ characteristics

From: Perception, attitude, practice and barriers towards medical research among undergraduate students

BarriersPositive responses
Lack of allotted time403 (80.3%)
Lack of exposure and opportunities401 (79.9%)
Lack of training and support393 (78.3%)
Lack of mentoring and guidance384 (76.6%)
Overall score, mean ± SD2.60 ± 0.76
Stratified by students’ characteristicsMean ± SDP-value
SexMale2.75 ± 0.790.002
Female2.53 ± 0.74
Age18–212.58 ± 0.750.2
22–252.78 ± 0.86
25+3.06 ± 0.88
Class standingSophomore2.60 ± 0.730.16
Junior2.50 ± 0.73
Senior2.67 ± 0.80
GPA< 70%2.65 ± 0.970.87
70–78%2.58 ± 0.75
79–85%2.57 ± 0.78
86–90%2.58 ± 0.74
> 90%2.70 ± 0.79
MajorAgriculture/Nutrition2.49 ± 0.750.03
Math/physics2.42 ± 0.84
Biology2.72 ± 0.75
Chemistry2.65 ± 0.91
Environmental heath/Nursing2.50 ± 0.68
Othera2.87 ± 0.72
PremedicalYes2.67 ± 0.740.04
No2.52 ± 0.78
MRVP participationYes3.27 ± 0.83< 0.0001
No2.58 ± 0.72
Other previous/current research experienceYes3.09 ± 0.89< 0.0001
No2.55 ± 0.73
  1. aThe “Other” section includes the following majors: psychology, political sciences, education, mechanical engineering, electrical and computer engineering, computer and communications engineering and chemical engineering