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Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies

From: Leadership training programs in graduate medical education: a systematic review

StudyStudy DesignSettingSample SizeAgeSexSpecialtyLevel of TrainingDescription of ProgramTopics CoveredFollow-up PeriodOutcome Metrics
Whitman, 1988 [13]Prospective case seriesUnited States (participants from 138 residency programs)180Not reportedNot reported21 specialties, including Internal Medicine, Surgery, and Family MedicineChief ResidentTwo-day workshop presenting information on a management skill in 45 min followed by
60-min small group exercise on applying the skills
Time management
Delegation of work
Stress management
Conflict resolution
Clinical teaching
Team building
NoneSurvey of each lecture and small-group exercise (5-point scale)
Doughty et al., 1991 [14]Retrospective case seriesUnited States (participants from 50 institutions)117Not reportedNot reportedPediatricsChief Resident3-day experiential workshopLeadership roles
Group functioning
Personal leadership skills and styles
Dealing with conflict
Effective feedback
Stress management
Working with hospital administration
6 monthsEvaluation of activities (10-point Likert Scale)
Mygdal et al., 1991 [15]Prospective case seriesTexas Family Practice Chief Resident Leadership Conference27Not reportedNot reportedFamily MedicineChief ResidentWorkshops (stress coping skills, leadership skills),
Small group discussions (supplementing the workshops),
Plenary speeches (three talks by leaders in Texas Family Medicine),
Concluding planning session
Leadership skills
Stress management
1 yearSelf-rating scale, subdivided into two subscales: Stress Management and Leadership Skills; Reactions to conference scale, Conference Evaluation Scale
Evans et al., 1997 [16]Prospective case controlUniversity of Washington Family Practice Residency Network78 (64 control, 14 study group)28.742.3% MaleFamily MedicinePGY-1A series of outdoor activities led by professional facilitatorsGroup dynamics
Problem-solving processes
Communication patterns
NoneSelf-assessment survey instrument: 7-point Likert Scale
Crites and Schuster, 2004 [17]Prospective case seriesWright University12Not reportedNot reportedInternal Medicine/ PediatricsPGY-1 to PGY-4Monthly 30-min seminarsBasic coding
Revenue management
Optimizing coding to enhance reimbursement
Physician personal finance
Insurance systems and payment mechanisms
Dynamics of group practice
Getting a good job
Accounts receivable management
Accounts payable management
Human resources
Risk management
Regulatory restrictions in practice
NoneSelf-assessment (Likert scale from 1 to 5); Curriculum Evaluation (Likert scale from 1 to 5)
Lee, Tse and Naguwa, 2004 [18]Prospective case seriesUniversity of Hawaii10Not reportedNot reportedPediatricsPGY-23-h interactive workshopLeadership skillsNoneSelf-assessment (Likert scale from 1 to 5)
Stoller, et al., 2004 [19]Prospective case seriesUniversity of Washington3227.725% FemaleInternal MedicinePGY-1, PGY-2Three 2-h sessionsManaging a ward team and leadership skills
Resident role as a teacher
Microskills of teaching and problems faced by residents
NoneSelf-assessment (Likert scale from 1 to 5)
Hemer et al., 2007 [20]Prospective case seriesMayo Clinic16Not reportedNot reportedPathologySenior ResidentsAnnual course consisting of 6 sessions, each of which were 1–2 days long (average 10 h), followed by a capstone seminarLeadership and management
Managing change and interpersonal skills
Personnel issues and quality improvement
NoneCourse Evaluation: Pre- and Post-test evaluation
Stergiopoulos et al., 2009 [21]Prospective case seriesUniversity of Toronto52Not reportedNot reportedPsychiatryPGY-2 & PGY-4Four workshops, utilizing case studies, “think-pair-share”, and “buzz groups”Teamwork
Conflict resolution and negotiation
Quality improvement
Program planning and evaluation
Leadership skills
Mental health and addiction reform
Organizational structures
Self and career development
NoneWorkshop ratings (Likert scale from 0 to 5 for each topic covered assessing if the objectives were met)
Pettit et al., 2011 [22]Retrospective case seriesUniversity of Iowa9Not reportedNot reportedNeuro-surgeryPGY-1 to PGY-5Monthly 1-h workshopsLeadership styles
Conflict management
Communication styles
1 year20-item retrospective pre-test and post-test
Kuo et al., 2010 [23]Retrospective case seriesUniversity of California San Francisco24Not reportedNot reportedPediatricsPGY-1 to PGY-33-year residency program.
Completion of a collaborative child advocacy project (protected time: one-half day a week during non-seminar outpatient and elective rotation), structured mentoring
Leadership skills
NoneAwards and Grants obtained by graduates
Brandon and Mullan, 2013 [24]Prospective case seriesUniversity of Michigan44Not reportedNot reportedRadiologyResident and Fellow PhysiciansSeven modules of 90-min sessionsCosting analysis
Quality improvement
Profiles of practice groups
Group governance
Data collection and process improvement
Healthcare economics
Negotiation and conflict management
NonePre- and post-test assessments
Cole, et al., 2017 [25]Prospective case seriesUniversity of Florida10Not reportedNot reportedAnesthesiologySenior residents (PGY4)2-week rotation in the Operating Room consisting of guided readings and daily debriefingsCommunication
Situational awareness
NoneSelf-assessment and raters by others in the Operating Room
Itri, et al., 2017 [26]Prospective Case SeriesUniversity of Virginia21Not reportedNot reportedRadiologyRadiology Residents1 workshop with group discussion, role-play, and simulationCommunication
Interpersonal skills
Hill, et al., 2018 [27]Prospective case seriesStaten Island University Hospital7Not reportedNot reportedSurgerySenior Residents (PGY3–5)Small-group discussionsLeadership skills (not further defined)NonePre- and post-test assessments