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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the analytic sample (408 Japanese physician-researchers awarded prestigious career development grants)

From: Workplace resources, mentorship, and burnout in early career physician-scientists: a cross sectional study in Japan

 Female (n = 101)Male (n = 307)p valuea
Individual factor
 Age, years36.6 ± 2.536.8 ± 2.70.585
 Years of experience as a physician12.2 ± 2.511.9 ± 2.70.338
 Doctor of Medical Science, n (%)77 (76.2)220 (71.7)0.370
 Board certified specialist, n (%)89 (88.17)284 (92.8)0.140
Specialty  0.258
Surgical departments42 (41.6)116 (37.8) 
Internal Medicine departments32 (31.7)124 (40.4) 
Other clinical departments9 (8.9)31(10.1) 
Public Health and Basic Medicine18 (17.8)36 (11.7) 
Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists
 Type B97 (99.0)300 (98.7)0.819
 Amount of funding support ×100 US$364 (140–741)377 (156–500)0.149
Research type, n (%)  0.024
 Basic medicine41 (42.7)170 (55.9) 
 Clinical medicine51 (53.1)114 (37.5) 
 Social sciences in medicine/others4 (4.2)20 (6.6) 
Average weekly working hours50.0 ± 16.762.7 ± 16.7< 0.001
Attributes (%)
 Patient care59.6 ± 24.554.4 ± 22.40.052
 Research22.0 ± 20.222.7 ± 19.20.733
 Education and Career4.5 ± 3.55.5 ± 4.60.022
 Teaching8.3 ± 10.27.5 ± 6.50.450
 Administration4.0 ± 5.28.5 ± 9.9< 0.001
 Others4.0 ± 11.33.1 ± 4.70.489
Married, n (%)74 (69.8)293 (90.4)< 0.001
Household income, US$(1$ = 100JPY), n (%)  0.128
  ≥ 200,00019 (19.4)40 (13.1) 
 150,000-200,00025 (25.5)80 (26.2) 
 100,000–150,00036 (36.7)146 (47.9) 
  < 100,00018 (18.4)39 (12.8) 
Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (0–100 points)b
 Personal burnout (6 items)41.9 ± 20.536.7 ± 20.80.029
 Work-related burnout (7 items)32.1 ± 15.331.9 ± 14.80.544
 Patient-related burnout (6 items)28.8 ± 20.527.8 ± 17.30.659
Mentor, n (%)c64 (63.4)178 (58.4)0.374
Workplace Resourcesd
 Organizational climate (5–15 points)e7.9 ± 3.08.4 ± 2.80.151
 Well-Being consultation services, f (5–20 points)14.6 ± 3.313.4 ± 3.60.004
 A role model with good work-life balance, n (%)g36 (36.0)127 (41.8)0.307
  1. Values are shown as number of physician-researchers (percentage), or mean ± S.D. for continuous variables whereas Grants-in-Aid for Young Scientists amount is shown as median (5–95% confidence intervals). Significance of the difference between male and female: p values were estimated based on a t-test, a chi-square test or a Fisher’s exact testa
  2. bEach item was answered using a five-point Likert scale scoring: Always for 100, Often for 75, Sometimes for 50, Seldom for 25, and Never/almost never for 0. Total score on the scale is the average of the scores on the items (i.e., total score of each subscale is 100). The three burnout facet scores were calculated with one item reversed in order of response, so that higher overall scores indicate higher degree of burnout. cThe mentor item was counted comparing those who have a mentor vs. those who do not have a mentor or those who do not know if they have a mentor. dWorkplace Resources were asked starting with “Does your workplace have the following conditions....?” and response patterns were based on a five point Likert-scale from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree.’ eOrganizational climate includes the presence of actions to promote gender equity and presence of career education. fWell-being consultation services measures if the workplace has an expert or a division for consultation on “career and work”, “research”, “harassment”, and “mental health”. g The item measures if the workplace has a role model who can keep a perceived good balance of career and personal life and divided into a binary variable (agree vs. either “do not know” or “disagree”