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Table 3 Key Concepts and Definitions

From: Finding common ground: meta-synthesis of communication frameworks found in patient communication, supervision and simulation literature

Appropriateness. The consideration that a method of communication or research is fit for the purpose for which it is intended. It implies selection from alternative methods driven by purpose.
Behaviourism. A worldview that assumes a learner responds to environmental stimuli in a predicable way. The learner starts off as a clean slate (i.e. tabula rasa) and behaviour is shaped through positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement] [65]
Critical Theory. A view that theory is historical, subjective, and a part of society. Critical theory is in this regard a highly reflexive enterprise” it is also concerned about the consequences of asking these questions [66]..
Culture. Consists of the values, beliefs, systems of language, communication, and practices that people share in common and that can be used to define them as a collective. This includes cultures brought by individuals from their experience, as well as professional, organisational and national cultures [67].
Discourse. A collection of conversations, which is “a coherent system of meanings, realized in texts, which reflects on its own way of speaking, refers to other discourses, is about objects, contains subjects and is historically located [68]. The implication is that different discourses look at a problem from different perspectives and with different answers.
Empowerment. A social action process that promotes participation of people, organizations, and communities in gaining control over their lives in their community and larger society [69].
Learner-centred teaching. A method that places the learner at the centre of goal setting, selection of learning activities, is based upon a coaching model and depends upon the relationship with the teacher; the educational alliance [32].
Paradigm. A universally recognized scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of practitioners [70] It is a way of thinking which is one of the limits on how a problem can be understood.
Patient- centred care. A model of care which places the patient at the centre of goal setting; seeks to understand problems from the patients perspective, is holistic, is based on a coaching model and depends upon the quality of the relationship between the clinician and patient- the “therapeutic alliance” [71, 72].
Power. The ability of an individual, group, or institution to influence or exercise control over other people and achieve their goals despite possible opposition or resistance. The contribution of Michael Foucault [73] however has been to draw out the relationship between knowledge and power and to see power relations as constitutive of all fields [74]. This leads to a critical approach questioning the role of power relations in every discipline [75].
Taxonomy. A classification system based on underlying observable structures or themes. Developing a taxonomy is a form of qualitative inquiry.
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