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Table 2 Groupings of communication skills in the literature as applied to patient communication, feedback conversations and simulation debriefs

From: Finding common ground: meta-synthesis of communication frameworks found in patient communication, supervision and simulation literature

GroupingStrategiesContext (References)
Counselling Micro-skills
 (1) Attending behavioursEye contact, vocal qualities, verbal tracking.Patient [55]
 (2) Body languageSquarely face, Open posture, Lean, Eye contact, Relaxed(SOLER)Patient [56]
Sit at an angle”; “Uncross legs and arms”; “Relax”; “Eye contact”; “Touch”; “Your intuition” (SURETY)
 (3) QuestioningOpen versus closed questionsSimulation [57]
Encouraging, Summarising, paraphrasing
 (4) Promoted self-reflection Patient [58] Feedback [37] Simulation [27]
 (5) Active listeningName, Understand, Respect, Support, ExplorePatient (Back et al. [54])
 (6) SignpostingName structures to facilitate navigation through conversation.Patient [59]
Patient centred interview technique
 (1) FocusingSilence,Patient Fassaert et al. 2007 -[60]
Non-verbal encouragement and neutral utterancesSimulation [44]
 (2) Non focusingReflection, echoing, open ended requests and summarising
Meta-skills
 Cognitive appraisal -CuesPicking up and responding to patient cues[21]
 Cognitive appraisal -BarriersUncovering and resolving barriers to communication
MindfulnessFull immersion in the moment[24]
Community orientationRecognising and acting upon the importance of community supports such as family (for patients) or peers (for learners)
Team orientationRecognising the importance of the team and acting accordingly
Simulation techniques
 (1) Advocacy-inquiryAdvocating a particular interpretation -combined with genuine curiosity as to whether that interpretation is correct.Debrief [61]
 (2). Group techniques (Debriefing)Team guided self correction[44]
Circular questioning
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