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Table 1 Overview of facets of competence assessed with the main instruments

From: Validation of a competence-based assessment of medical students’ performance in the physician’s role

Facets of competenceInstruments
directindirect
Responsibility
The physician takes responsibility and shows accountability for his work. He/She accepts liability for his/her work.
FOCEPA
Teamwork and collegiality
The physician cooperates effectively and respectfully in a (multidisciplinary) team, taking the views, knowledge, and expertise of others into account.
FOCEPA, HOPA
Knowing and maintaining own personal bounds and possibilities
The physician knows the boundaries of his own ability and asks for help (timely) when needed. He/She reflects on himself/herself and the situation.
FOCEPA, HOPA
Empathy and openness
The physician shows empathy, openness and susceptibility/accessibility in his/her contact with patients.
 EPA, CARE
Structure, work planning and priorities
The physician sees the overall picture, has organizational skills and a flexible attitude, and sets priorities in his/her work.
FOCEPA, HOPA
Coping with mistakes
The physician is aware of the fact that anyone can make and does make mistakes once in a while. He/She is approachable when someone points out his/her mistakes and reacts adequately when he/she thinks that a colleague makes a mistake.
FOCEPA, HOPA
Active listening to patients
The physician listens actively to patients and reacts (verbally and nonverbally) on the things he/she hears in a way that encourages the sharing of information (by the patients) and confirm his/her involvement with the patient. He/She shows attention to non-verbal signals coming from the patients.
CAREEPA
Scientifically and empirically grounded method of working
The physician uses evidence-based procedures whenever possible and relies on scientific knowledge. He/She searches actively and purposefully for evidence and consults high-quality resources. He/She uses his scientific knowledge critically and carefully in his/her work.
FOCEPA
Ethical awareness
The physician is acquainted with ethical aspects of his/her work. He/She distinguishes different points of view in the moral debate and makes deliberate choices when his/her work confronts him/her with ethical issues
 EPA
Verbal communication with colleagues and supervisors
The physician gives structured, pithy, and unambiguous verbal reports on his/her findings on a patient and his diagnostic and therapeutic policy. He/She asks relevant and purposeful questions.
FOCEPA, HOPA
  1. Direct: facet of competence is explicitly assessed (FOC, CARE); indirect: facet of competence is implicitly assessed by patient case vignettes (EPA) or anchor examples (HOPA, CARE)